Scroll 11 - Emperor Nintoku

Rejection of the Throne


Emperor Ohosazaki [Nintoku] was the fourth child of Emperor Homuta [Ojin]. His mother was called Natatsuhime no Mikoto, the granddaughter of Iokiiribiko no Miko. From a young age, the Emperor was bright and shrewd, and his figure was very beautiful. As an adult, he was very gracious. In the 41st year, spring, second month of his reign, Emperor Homuta died.
At that time, the Crown Prince, Ujinowakiiratsuko, passed on the position to Osazaki no Mikoto, not becoming Emperor himself. He had conference with Osazaki no Mikoto, saying, “The lord who rules the 10,000 people of the realm will cover them like heaven and receive them like the earth. If above there is a joyful heart that uses the people, then the people will also become happy and the realm will be at peace. Now I am the younger brother and insufficient for the task; how could I dare to succeed to the throne, and climb to the heavenly rank? The great prince’s figure is outstanding, and his virtue and filial piety never ending, and his remaining lifespan long, and he is sufficient to rule the realm. The previous Emperor established me as the Crown Prince, but was it because I have talent? I think he only pampered me. Also working for the state is a serious matter, and I am still ignorant and not appropriate. The older brother is above and the younger below, the sage becomes lord and the fool vassal, from the past to now this is the general principle. I wish you not to doubt and take up the empire. I will become your vassal and aid.”
Then Osazaki no Mikoto replied to him, “Previously the Emperor said, ‘The Imperial rank cannot be left open for even a day.’ Therefore he selected the brightest person and established him as the next king, making him the heir, bestowing him upon the people, so we should respect his position and have his order heard in the country. I am not a genius, and how can I disregard the order of the previous Emperor, and lightly follow my younger brother the king’s request?” Therefore he rejected the offer, and each of them let the other go first.
At that time Imperial Prince Nukata no Onakatsuhiko took command of the mita and the miyake of Yamato, and told the controller of this mita, the ancestor of the Omi of Izumo O No Sukune, “This mita originally belonged to mountain wardens. Now I am going to take command of it. You cannot manage it.” Then O no Sukune went and told the Crown Prince.
The Crown Prince said, “Go tell Osazaki no Mikoto.” Then O no Sukune told Osazaki no Mikoto,
“I can’t govern the miyake that I am stationed at because Imperial Prince Onakatsuhiko is obstructing me.”
Then Osazakai no Mikoto asked the ancestor of the Atai of Yamato Maro, “Was the mita in Yamato originally the land of mountain wardens?”
He replied, “I don’t know.” Only my younger brother, Agoko, would know that.” At that time, Agoko had been dispatched to Korea and still had not returned.
Then Osazaki no Mikoto told O no Sukune, “You go to Korea and call Agoko back. Spend both day and night, and hurry.” Then he immediately arranged for 80 fishermen from Awaji to become sailors, and then O went to Korea, and leading Agoko returned.
Then they asked him about the mita of Yamato, and he replied, “From what I hear, in the time of Emperor Makimuku no Tamaki no Miya ni Ameno Shitashirashishi sumera no Mikoto [Suinin], it was the charge of the Crown Prince Otarashihiko no Mikoto [Keiko], and set up as the mita of Yamato. At that time the order was, ‘All of the mita of Yamato are the mita of the Emperor. Even a child of the Emperor, if they are not the ruler, cannot govern it.’ This land does not belong to the mountain wardens. Osazaki no Mikoto dispatched Agoko to Imperial Prince Nukata no Onakatsuhiko, to notify him of the circumstances. Imperial Prince Onakatsuhiko could not say anything, but from this his evil intentions were known, though he was forgiven and not punished.

Treason of Prince Oyamamori


Afterwards Imperial Prince Oyamamori resented that the previous Emperor had thrown him aside and not made him into the Crown Prince. Therefore he plotted, saying, “I will kill the Crown Prince, and then climb to the Chrysanthemum Throne.”
Then Osazaki heard this plan, and secretly told the crown prince, who prepared soldiers and made them protect him. At that time the crown prince had set up soldiers to wait on him. Imperial Prince Oyamamori did not know about these stationed troops, and ordered up only a few hundred soldiers, and departed by night. When the dawn broke he was at Uji, and just about to cross the river.
At that time the Crown Prince wore hemp clothing and, and took the helm, and secretly mixed in with the ferrymen, and ferried Imperial Prince Oyamamori. When they got to the middle of the river, he ordered the ferryman to step on Oyamamori’s boat, and it listed. Then Imperial Prince Oyamamori fell into the river and, while he floated and flowed along, he sang, “blah blah blah.”
However at that time, a large number of ambushing soldiers jumped out, and he was unable to reach shore, and he drowned. They were ordered to search for his body, and it floated to Kawara no Watari. At that time, the crown prince looked on the body and sang, “blah blah blah.”They buried him at Mt. Nara.

Death of the Crown Prince


Then a palace was built in Uji where he stayed, however because he had forgone the sovereignty to Osazaki no Mikoto, and for some time [Osazaki no Mikoto] did not take up the throne.
So there was no Emperor, and three years passed like this. At that time there was a fisherman who wanted to give his fresh fish as a gift, so he presented them at the Uji Palace. The crown prince ordered the fishermen, “I am not the Emperor.” Then he returned the fish and ordered the man to Naniwa. Osazaki again returned the gift and ordered the man present it at Uji.
In this way the fisherman’s gift went bad in the going and returning. So he went back and took another catch of fresh fish and presented it. They acted with reservation as previously, and the fish went bad again. The fisherman was very taxed in the going and coming, and threw away the fish and wept. Hence the proverb, “A fisherman cries over his things.”
The Crown Prince said, “I know that my older brother’s intention will not change. The longer I live, the more peril for the realm.” Then he killed himself.
At that time Osazaki no Mikoto heard that the Crown Prince had died, and was shocked and from Naniwa rushed to Uji Palace. Three days had passed since his death. At that time Osazaki no Mikoto beat his breast in sadness, and did not know what to do, and untied his hair and straddled the corpse, and cried three times, “My brother the prince!” and he was resurrected, and sat up by himself. Then Osazaki told the crown prince, “What sadness! What remorse! Why did you do it? If the dead could know things, what would the last Emperor say to me?”
Then the Crown Prince told his brother the king, “It is the order of heaven, who can stop it? If I go toward the place where the Emperor is at, I will tell him of the wisdom of my brother the prince, and of his great reserve. However when the sage-king heard of my death, he rushed a great distance, how can he not be tired?” Then he gave to him his older sister by the same mother, Imperial Princess Yata, and said, “She may not be worthy of engagement, but please permit her to be among those in the side palace [harem].” Then he law down in his coffin and died. Then Osazaki no Mikoto wore bleached clothing and mourned, and cried exceedingly. They buried him atop Mt. Uji.

Accession to the Throne


First year, spring, first month. On the third day, Osazaki no Mikoto became the Emperor. The Empress was pronounced Grand Empress. The capital was at Naniwa, at Takatsu Palace. At that time, the palace walls and buildings could not be painted white, the rafters, eaves, columns, and pillars were not decorated, and the reeds of the roof were not cut equally. This was because for his own personal things the Emperor did not wish to cause delay during the time of agricultural production.
Previously, on the day the Emperor was born, a horned owl went into the birth chamber. The next morning, Emperor Homuta called Senior Minister Takeuchi no Sukune and told him, “What sign is this?”
The Senior Minister answered, “It is a good sign. Also last night, when my wife was giving birth, a wren came into the birthing chamber. It’s a mystery to me.”
Then the Emperor said, “Now my child and the ministers child were born on the same day, and they both came with a portent, and this is a revealing of heaven. Therefore I want to take these bird’s names and each switch them with the names of our children, as a covenant to future generations.”Then they took the name of the wren, and named the crown prince, Imperial Prince Osazaki. They took the owl and named the minister’s child Zuku no Sukune. He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Heberi. That year was 313.
Second year, spring, third month. On the eighth day, Imperial Princess Iwa was made Empress. The Empress gave birth to Emperor Oenoizahowake [Richu], Imperial prince Sumi no Eno Nakatsu, Emperor Mitsuhawake [Hanzei], and Emperor Oasazumawakugo no Sukune [Ingyo]. His consort Princess Kaminaga of Hyuga gave birth to Imperial Prince Okusaka and Imperial Princess Hatabi.

Elimination of Forced Labor


Fourth year, spring, second month. On the sixth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “I climbed to the high stand and gazed far-off, and smoke was not rising from within the country. It is because the people are very poor, and the households are not cooking. I hear, in the days of the sage-king of old, the people sang in praise of virtue, and the households songs of fortitude. Nowadays, I look for these many omens, and in these three years, I have not heard these sounds. The smoke of cooking fires becomes more and more scarce. Verily, the five grains are not climbing, and the people are impoverished. Even within the capital there is not enough provision, and surely outside it is worse.”
Third month. On the 21st day, the Emperor proclaimed, “From now on, within three years, forced labor will be completely eliminated to relieve the hardships of the people. From then on, the Emperor’s clothing and shoes, to the point they were ripped and used up, were still not replaced. His food, to the point it was lukewarm, and his soup warm to the point that it was inedible due to spoilage, was not remade. He melted away his desires and controlled his intentions, and so managed his affairs without problem. Thereby the palace wall crumbled and was not remade, and the reeds of the roof broke and were not repaired. The wind and rain came in through the cracks and soaked his clothing and bedding. Where stars leaked through the breakage in the roof it leaked and wet his couch and bed matting. After this, because of the wind and rain, the five grains grew in abundance. Within the three years, the people had bumper crops, and the hymns of virtue overflowed, and the smoke of cooking fires multiplied.
Seventh year, summer, fourth month. On the first day, the Emperor was on his high stand, and he looked far-off, and the much smoke rose. That day, he told the Empress, “I have already found abundance, what now is there to worry about?”
Then the Empress replied, “How have you become rich?”
Then the Emperor said, “The smoke rises in many countries, and the people are rich.
Then the Empress said, “The palace wall is broken and cannot be repaired, and the palace rooms are ripped, and the clothing and bedding is wet. How have you become rich?”
Then the Emperor said, “If the Emperor takes the position of ruler, this is for the people. The ruler thereby is the foundation for the people. For the sage-kings of old, if one person was hungry and cold, they reflected and blamed themselves. Now then, if the people are poor than I will be poor, and if the people are rich than I will be rich. Never before have the people been rich and the ruler been poor.”
Autumn, eighth month. On the ninth day, the Mibu be was established for Imperial Prince Oenoizahowake. Also, the Kazuraki be was established for the Empress.

Reinstitution of Forced Labor


Ninth month. The many countries all requested, “Since we have been exempted from forced labor, three years have passed. Because of that the imperial palace is rotten and broken, and the country’s treasury empty. Now the people are rich, and do not even collect things left in the street. In the country there is no loneliness, and the families have remainder in reserve. If, in this time, we do not pay taxes or repair the imperial rooms, we fear that this will be a crime against heaven.” However, the Emperor endured, and would not listen to them.
10th year, winter, tenth month. There was a reinstitution of forced labor, and the people took care to make the palace. The people would not be led and on acted on their own, helping the old, taking children by the hand, transporting materials and sandbags on their backs, and with no concern for day or night poured effort into competitive building. By this, in just a short time the imperial palace was completely finished, thereby to the present he is considered the sage-emperor.

Construction of Dykes


11th year, summer, fourth month. On the 17th day, the Emperor proclaimed to the myriad ministers, “Now I look upon my country, and in the countryside, the wetlands are wide and the paddies and fields are few; now the river water still spreads out sideways, and the current is not fast. If there is prolonged rain, the sea water flows back upstream such that villages can be navigated by ship and mud covers the road. Therefore the myriad ministers together should look at this, and establish sideways ditches that transport water to the sea, and prevent the upstream flow of sea water, and keep whole the fields and houses.”
Winter, tenth month. They dug a ditch in the plateau to the north of the palace [in Naniwa Takatsu Palace] and drained the water into the western sea [Osaka bay]. Therefore the water of this place was called, Horie. Also they prevented the water buildup when flooding of the river to the north, and made the dyke of Mamuta.
At that time the construction in two places kept breaking and was difficult to block up. Then the Emperor had a dream, and the gods instructed him, saying, “The person in Musashi Kowakubi and the person in Kawachi Mamuta no Muraji Koromuko (koromuko is read ko-ro-mu-ko, 莒呂母能古). If these two people be sacrificed to the river god, certainly they can be blocked.” Then they searched for these two people and found them, and thereby sacrificed them the river god.
At that time, Kowakunbi cried in sadness, threw himself into the water and died. Thereby one place was completed. Only Koromuko took two completed flasks and then faced the place that was hard to block up the water. Then he took the two flasks and threw them into the water, and said, “I honor the god of the river, and I will become an offering. Now I have come. If you certainly want to get me, sink these two flasks, and do not let them float, then I will know that you are truly a god, and will go into the water of my own volition. If you do not sink these flasks, I will know you are a false god, then why should I lose my life?” Then a whirlwind rose up, and the two flasks were like to sink in the water.
However the flasks rolled about atop the waves, and did not sink. Therefore the flasks went to a place where the current was fast. Thus Koromuko did not die, but this dyke was completed. Therefore because of Koromuko’s genius, he did not die. Therefore the people at that time named those two places, Kowakunibi no Taema and Koromuko no Taema. That year, the Sillans paid tribute and were made to work in these labors.

Guests come from Goguryeo


12th year, autumn, seventh month. On the third day, the country of Goguryeo presented iron shields and iron targets.
Eighth month. On the tenth day, there was a banquet for the guests from Goguryeo in the court. That day, the myriad ministers and public officials were gathered and had a feast, and made to shoot the metal shield and target that the men of Goguryeo had presented. All the people could not pierce them, however the ancestor of the Omi of Ikuha, called Tatehito no Sukune, shot the iron target and pierced it. At that time the guests from Goguryeo all saw this, and were amazed at this incredible technique, and they rose and bowed to the court.
The next day, in praise of Tatehito no Sukune, he was given a new name, Ikuhanotoda no Sukune. That same day, the ancestor of the Miyatsuko of Ohatsuse, called Sukune no Omi, was given the name Sakanokori no Omi (this is read sa-ka-no-ko-ri, 左舸能莒里).
Winter, tenth month. A great ditch was dug in Yamashiro, in Kurukuma no Agata, and the rice field irrigated. The people in that place had a rich harvest every year.
13th year, autumn, ninth month. The miyake of Mamuta was made. Therefore the Tsukishine be was established.
Winter, tenth month. Wani Resevoir was made. The same month, Yokono Dyke was constructed.
14th year, winter, 10th month. A bridge was made at the port of Ikai. There they named the bridge, Obashi. The same year, they constructed a great road in the middle of the capital, It went straight from the south gate to the village of Tajihi. Also they dug a great ditch in Komuku, then with the waters of the Ishi river they irrigated Kamitsusuzuka, Shimotsusuzuka, Kamitsutoyura, and Shimotsutoyura, four places in the suburban plain, and reclaimed some 40,000 rice fields. Therefore this people in this place had fertile land and did not worry about bad harvest years.

Death of Princess Kuga


16th year, autumn, seventh month. On the first day, the Emperor pointed to the palace-girl Princess Kuwata no Kuga, and said to the retainers in the grounds, “I want to love this woman, but I am troubled by the Empress’ jealousy, so I cannot meet her, and many years have passed. What can be done so that her best years not be in vain?.” Then he sang, “blah blah blah.”
Then the ancestor of the Miyatsuko of the country of Harima, called Hayamachi, came forth alone and sang, “blah blah blah.”
That day, the Emperor gave Princess Kuga to Hayamachi.
The next evening, Hayamachi reported to the house of Princess Kuga. Then Princess Kuga was not agreeable to him. So he drew near her bedchamber by force. Then Princess Kuga said to him, “I am a widow and at the end of my life. How can I become your wife?” Then the Emperor heard this, and wanted to fufill the intention of Hayamachi, so he coupled Princess Kuga and Hayamachi and sent them off to Kuwata. But Princess Kuga fell ill and died on the way. Therefore on the way today the grave of Princess Kuga is still there.

Insertion of Princess Yata into the Harem


17th year. The Sillans did not send tribute.
Autumn, ninth month. The Emperor dispatched the ancestor of the Omi of Ikuha, Toda no Sukune and the ancestor of the Miyatsuko of Ohatsuse Sakanori no Omi, and they inquired into why there was no tribute. Then the Sillans were afraid and immediately paid. It was 1,460 rolls of silk and various rare sundries, all together 80 ships worth.
22nd year, spring, first month. The Emperor told the Empress, “I have summoned Imperial Princess Yata, and plan to make her my consort.” The Empress did not heed this request. Then the Emperor sang to request of the Empress, “blah blah blah.”
And the Empress sang back, “blah blah blah.”
Then the Emperor sang again, “blah blah blah.”
And the Empress replied, “blah blah blah.”
Then again the Emperor, “blah blah blah.”
The Empress still would not grant his request, and therefore shutup and did not reply.
30th year, autumn, ninth month. On the 11th day, the Empress went to Ki and arrived at Cape Kumano, and took the Mitsunakashiwa of that place and returned (Kashiwa is read ka-shi-wa, 箇始婆). That day, the Emperor had been awaiting a time when the Empress was absent, and then he brought Imperial Princess Yata into the palace.

The Empress Leaves the Palace


At that time the Empress went away to the port of Naniwa and heard that the Emperor had had intercourse with Imperial Princess Yata, and was greatly resentful. For this she threw they Mitsunakashiwa into the ocean, and did not return to the shore. Therefore the people at that time that ocean where leaves were spread, Kashiwa no Watari, Kashiwa Ferry. Then the Emperor did not know the Empress was angry and would not return to shore, and went warmly to Otsu, and waited on the Empress’ boat, and sang, “blah blah blah.”
At that time the Empress did not stop in Otsu, and went upstream to Yamashiro, and made for Yamato. The next day, the Emperor dispatched a servant, called Toriyama, to order the Empress to return, and sang, “blah blah blah.”
The Empress did not return, and went off again. She arrived in Yamashiro at the river and sang, “blah blah blah.”
Then she went to Mt. Nara, and looked upon Kazuragi, and sang, “blah blah blah.”
Then she returned to Yamashiro and had a palace built south of the hill of Tsutsuki, and stayed there.

The Empress' Message


Winter, tenth month. On the first day, the Emperor dispatched the ancestor of the Omi of Ikuha, Kuchimochi no Omi, and by one account, the ancestor of the Omi of Wani, called Kuchiko no Omi, to summon the Empress. Kuchimochi no Omi arrived in Tsutsukiaka, and although he sought audience with the Empress, she did not speak and would not reply. At that time, Kuchimochi no Omi, though he was soaked by the rain clouds and many days and nights passed, lay prostrate before the Empress’ palace and would not leave.
Then, Kuchimochi no Omi’s younger sister, called Princess Kuniyori, was in the service of the Empress. At one time, by chance, she was attending on the Empress and at her side, and she saw her brother wet by the rain and began to cry, and sang, “blah blah blah.”
Then the Empress said to Princess Kuchiyori, “Why do you cry?”
She replied, “Now the one prostrate in the garden seeking an audience is my older brother. Though soaked by the rain he has not fled, and alone lays on the ground so he can have an audience. That is why I cry.”
The Empress heard this and said, “Tell your older brother to go back quickly. I will not return.” Then Kuchimochi returned, and reported this to the Emperor.

Death of the Empress


11th month, seventh day. The Emperor went by river to Yamashiro. At that time, the branch of a mulberry tree was floating on the water. The Emperor saw this branch and sang, “blah blah blah.”
The next day, he rode his carriage to the Tsutsuki Palace and summoned the Empress. However, the Empress did not come to see him. At that time the Emperor sang, “blah blah blah.”
And sang again, “blah blah blah.”
At that time the Empress said to him, “My liege favors Imperial Princess Yata and has made her his consort. I do not want to be Empress set alongside this Imperial Princess.” Then she would not see him.
The Emperor’s van went back to the palace. The Emperor was very resentful of the Empress’ anger. However, he still thought of his love for her.
31st year, spring, first month. On the 15th day, Oe no Izahowake no Mikoto was made Crown Prince.
35th year, summer, sixth month. The Empress Princess Iwano died at Tstsuki Palace.
37th year, winter, 11th month. On the 12th day, they buried the Empress at Mt. Nara.

Deer of Togano


38th year, spring, first month. On the sixth day, Imperial Princess Yata was made Empress.
Autumn, seventh month. The Emperor and the Empress were in a high place to escape the heat. At that time every night, they always heard the cries of the deer in Togano. The crying voices of the deer were lonely, clear, and saddening. Together they had feelings of pathos. At the end of the month, the cries of the dear could no longer be heard. Then the Emperor said to the Empress, “Tonight there are no deer cries, what is the reason for this?”
The next day, Saekibe of Ina no Agata presented the Emperor with an offering. The Emperor asked his Kashiwade (cook), “What present is this?”
He replied, “It’s venison.”
Then he asked, “Venison from where?”
He relied, “From Togano.”
At that time the Emperor thought this present was certainly that deer that cried, and therefore he said to the Empress, “My recent worries were soothed by listening to the cries of deer. Now considering the day that Saekibe hunted deer and the mountain they went to, this is the deer that cried. This man, even if he did not know that I liked this deer, by chance hunted it, and I can’t help but resent that. Therefore I do not want Saekibe to come near the palace.” Then he ordered him moved to Nuta, in Aki. He is now the ancestor of the Saekibe in Nuta.
There is an old story that goes, “Of old, there was one man who went to Toga and stayed in the field. At that time, two deer came to his side. Then when the cock cried, the male deer said to the female, ‘I had a dream last night, that many white frosts fell and covered my body. What does it mean?’
Then the female deer answered, ‘You will go out, and certainly a human will see you, shoot you, and kill you. Then your body will be painted white with salt, like the frost.’ At that time, the man staying in the field thought it really strange in the back of his heart. At dawn, a hunter shot the male deer and killed it. At that time the man said the proverb, ‘Even deers that bell end up like their dreams.’”

Disrespect of Prince Hayabusa


40th year, spring, second month. The Emperor favored Imperial Princess Metori, and wanted to make her his consort. So he asked Imperial Prince Hayabusawake to be the go-between. At that time Imperial Prince Hayabusawake secretly married her himself and did not report back for a long time. Then, the Emperor did not know what was going on, and warmly visited Imperial Princess Metori’s residence. At that time Imperial Princess was weaving, and the weaver women sang a song, “blah blah blah.”
The Emperor knew Imperial Prince Hayabusawake had secretly married her and resented it. However out of reserve for what the Empress might say, and respect for the principle of family relations, he did not punish him.
After a while, Imperial Prince Hayabusawake had made a pillow of the Imperial Princess’ thighs and was lying there, when he said, “Which is faster, the wren or the falcon?”
“The falcon,” she said.
Then the Imperial Prince said, “That is why I arrived first.” When the Emperor heard these words, again his resentment was aroused. Then Imperial Prince Hayabusa’s groundsman sang, “blah blah blah.”
The Emperor heard this song, and his rage was still greater, and he said, “I did not want to lose a family member because of my private resentment, and forgave it. What can it mean that my private mater extends to the realm?” And then he wanted to kill Imperial Prince Hayabusawake.
Then the Imperial Prince, leading Imperial Princess Metori, wanted to put her in Ise Shrine, and quickly fled there. Then the Emperor heard that Imperial Prince Hayabusawake had escaped, and dispatched Kibi no Homuchibe no Ofuna and Harima no Saeki no Atai Aganoko, and said, “Pursue him and kill him.”
Then the Empress said, “Imperial Princess Metori has commited a heavy crime. However, when she is executed, I do not want her body to be exposed.” Then he ordered Ofuna and the others, “Do not take the Imperial Princess’ leg and hand jewelry.
Ofuna and the others pursued them to Uda, and they approached Mt. Soni. Then they hid in the grass and were able to escape, and they quickly ran and crossed the mountains. Then the Imperial Prince sang, “blah blah blah.”

Jewels of Princess Metori


Ofuna and the others knew they had escaped, and quickly pursued them to Ise, to the field of Komoshiro, where they killed them. At that time, Ofuna and the others searched for the Imperial Princess’ jewels and took them from within her clothes. Then the two royal bodies were buried in around Iokigawa, and they reported to the Emperor. The Empress then asked Ofuna and the others, “Did you see the Imperial Princess’ jewels?”
They replied, “We didn’t see any.”
That year, 11th month (noted as first tasting month), on the banquet day, wine was given to the women of both outer and inner circles, and others. Then, the wife of Wakamori Yama, Kimi of Oumi no Yama, as well as Princess Uneme no Iware, both women had on their hands strings of beautiful jewels. The Empress saw these jewels and thought that they resembled the jewels of the late Imperial Princess. She doubted this, and ordered an official to ask them how they got these jewels. They said, “They belong to Saeki no Atai Aganoko’s wife.”
Then Aganako was questioned about it, and he replied, “On the day we killed the Imperial Princess, I found and took them.” Then they were going to kill Aganoko. Then Aganoko offered up his private land as tribute, and they spared his life. Therefore they took that land, and spared him the death penalty. So they called this land, Tamate.

Beginning of Falconry


41st year, spring, third month. The Emperor dispatched Kinotsuno no Sukune to Baekje, for the first time to divide the country into regions, and to record the products of each area. At that time one family member of the King of Baekje, the Lord Sake, did not observe proper formalities. Therefore Kinotsuno no Sukune blamed the King of Baekje. The King of Baekje was worried, and with iron chains bound Sake no Kimi, and subordinating him put him before Sotsuhiko.
Then the Lord Sake came to Japan, and then escaped and hid in the Ishikawa no Nishikori no Obitokoroshi household, and deceived them, saying, “The Emperor has already pardoned my sin, therefore I want to ask you to help me get by.” After a long while the Emperor eventually pardoned this sin.
43rd year, autumn, ninth month. On the first day, Abiko of the Yasami miyake caught a strange bird and presented it to the Emperor, saying, “I always string up a rope to catch birds, but up to now I have never gotten a bird of this species. I thought it was strange and present it to you.”
The Emperor summoned Lord Sake and showed him the bird, and said, “What bird is this?”
Lord Sake replied, “There are many of this birds species in Baekje. If you tame it, it can get along well with people, and flies fast and can steal many other birds. In Baekje the common name for this bird is Kuchi. (Now it is called taka- the hawk). Then he bestowed this bird on Lord Sake and charged him with its taming. After some hours the bird was tamed. Then Lord Sake accordingly attached a rope of reed to its leg, and a small bell to its tail, and put it on his arm, and presented it to the Emperor. That day, the Emperor visited Mozuno to hunt for sport, and at that time there were many phesants. He released this hawk and had it catch them, and he got some tens of pheasants. That month, he established the be of Falconers (taka-kai-be). The people of that time gave a name to the place where the birds were raised, the village of Takaama.

War with Silla


50th year, spring, third month. On the fifth day, the people of Kawachi said, “In the dyke of Mamuta a goose gave birth to [a gosling or laid an egg].”
That day, he dispatched an observer, who said, “Its true.” The Emperor sang and asked Takeshiuchi no Sukune, saying, “blah blah blah.”
Takeshiuchi no Sukune sang back, “blah blah blah.”
53rd year. Silla did not pay tribute to the court.
Summer, fifth month. The Emperor dispatched the ancestor of the Kimi of Kamitsuke (Kozuke), Takahase, to inquire into this tribute delinquincy. Then at some point on the way, he hunted a white deer. He returned and presented to the Emperor, and then went again. After a short while the Emperor sent another emissary, Takahase’s younger brother, Tamichi, telling him, “If the Sillans are insuboordinate, raise soldiers and attack them.” Then he bestowed upon him choice troops.
The Sillans had marshaled troops and resisted them. The Sillans challenged day after day, but Tamichi had hardened the defeneses and they could not get through. At that time one of the leaders of the Sillan army became separated from the other troops. They caught him and questioned him about the circumstances. He said, “There is one powerful soldier, named Baekchung. He is swift and smart, and always is on the right side of the vanguard, so if you wait and attack the left, we will be defeated.”
Then the Sillans left the left side empty, while reinforcing the right. Then Tamichi’s calvary attacked their left, and the Sillan army was crushed. Then he let his men do as they pleased, and they rode down several hundred people, and took captive the residents of four villages, who they brought back to Japan.

Miscellaneous Omens


55th year. The Emishi rebelled. Tamichi was dispatched with orders to attack them. However he was defeated by the Emishi, and died in the port of Ishi. At that time his retainers took from Tamichi’s hand the string of jewels he held and sent it to his wife. His wife held those jewels in her hand and hanged herself. People at that time heard this and wept. The Emishi attacked again and carried off many of the populace. When they dug Tamichi’s tomb, there was a giant snake, and its eyes were angry, and it came out of the tomb on its own and bit people. The Emishi were completely ravaged by the snake’s venom and many of them died, only one or two people got away. Therefore people at that time said, “Even though Tamichi was already dead, he has had his revenge. Who says the dead have no knowledge?”
58th year, summer, fifth month. On the the road south of Arahaka, two Kunigi trees suddenly grew, and straddled the road, joining in an arch above.
Winter, tenth month. The countries of Wu and Goguryeo each paid tribute.
60th year, winter, tenth month. The Emperor employed the custodians of the Shiratori tomb in labor. At one time the Emperor went to look at their work, and one of them, called Meki, turned into a white deer and ran away. Then the Emperor said, “These tombs had always been empty, so I wanted to get rid of their custodians, and employ them in other labors. Now I see this phantom, and I fear them. So I will not reassign the custodians.” Then, he bestowed them to the Muraji of Haji.
62nd year, summer, fifth month. The Governer of Totomi said, “There is a great tree, and it floated down the Oi river, and right now its stuck at a turn This tree is 10 i, and it splits into two at the top.”Then the Emperor dispatched the Atai of Yamato Agoko, and told him to make a boat, and he transported it by the south sea, and came to the port at Naniwa, and was added to the imperial fleet.

The Ice House


That year, Imperial Prince Nukataohonakatsuhiko went hunting in Tsuke. At that time the Imperial Prince looked out from the top of a mountain, and in the fields he saw something, and its shape was like a hermitage.
Then he dispatched a messenger to take a look at it. He came back and said, “It’s a shed.”
Then he called the Inaki of Tsuke Ohoyamanushi and asked him, “This thing out in the field, what kind of shed is it?”
He told him, “Its an ice-shed.”
The Imperial Prince said, “Is it for storage, or what do you use it for?”
He said, “The earth is dug about three meters, and above that its is covered in grass. We spread Chisusuki grass thickly, then take ice and put it on top of that. Then in the summer months, it still does not melt. The use is that, in the hot months, we can cool our water or wine.” The Imperial Prince came with some of that ice and presented it to the Emperor. The Emperor was greatly pleased. Afterwards, on the last month of the year, they put ice in the shed, and began distributing it from the spring solstice.

The Serpent of Kibi


65th year. There was a man in the country of Hida, called Sukuna. His body had two faces, which faced opposite directions, and came together at the top of his head, and he had no back of the head. Each had its own arms and legs, and he had thighs but no back knees or heels. He had a lot of power and was light and fast, and he could hold a sword in both left and right hands, and using all four hands use a bow at the same time. He was insubordinate to the Emperor, and regularly captured and stole from the populace for his amusement. The Emperor dispatched the ancestor of the Omi of Wani, Naniwa no Nekotakefurukuma, to put him to death.
67th year, winter, tenth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor visited Ishitsuhara in Kawachi, and established a tomb there. On the 18th day, they started building the tomb. The same day, a deer suddenly got up from out of the field and ran out, into the people where working, then fell over and died. At that time they thought this sudden death strange, and went to search for a wound, and a shrike came out of its ear and flew away. Then the looked inside th ear, and the skin was completely eaten away. Therefore the place is called Mozu [shrike] no Mimihara for this reason. That year, in the central area of the country of Kibi, at a place where the Kawashima river forks, a giant serpent was terroizing the people. People who went through this place on their way were always afflicted by the venom, and many people died.
Then, the ancestor of the Omi of Kasa, Agatamori, was uncommonly brave and strong. He faced this fork and took three completed flasks and threw them into the river, and said, “You often spit venom, and harass the passers-by. I’m going to kill you. You sink those flasks, and I will flee, but if you don’t I will slice up your body.”
Then the snake in the water turned into a deer, and made like to pull down the flasks. The flasks would not sink, so he raised his sword and inserted it into the water cutting the snake. Then he searched for the snake’s companions, and found many snakes of that family filling a hole in the depths. So he cut it, and the river water changed to blood. Therefore they called this place in the river, Agatamori no Fuchi.

Death of the Emperor


At this time, a suspicious air was moving, and one or two rebels were beginning to appear. So the Emperor woke up early in the morning and went to bed late at night, lowered taxes, relaxed the people, exercised virtue and blessing, touched the troubled, mourned for the dead, enquired about the sick, and cared for widows and orphans. In this the decrees of the administration diffused throughout, and the realm was at peace, and for 20 years nothing happened.
87th year, spring, first month. On the 16th day, the Emperor died.
Winter, tenth month. On the seventh day, the Emperor was buried in Mozuno no Misasagi.

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