Accession of Emperor Kimmei
Emperor Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa [Kimmei] was the rightful heir of Emperor Odo [Keitai]. His mother was Empress Tashiraka. His father the Emperor loved him, and always set him at his side.
When the Emperor was young, he had a dream in which someone said, “The one who cherishes Hada no Otsuchi will, when he becomes an adult, certainly govern the realm.” When he awoke, he dispatched messengers to search everywhere, and he found him in the country of Yamashiro, Kii District, in the town of Fukakusa. His name was just as it was in the dream. By this he was overjoyed in his body, and sighed at this rare dream, and asked, “What’s your story?”
He replied, “Nothing. However, once went to trade goods in Ise, and on the way back in the mountains I ran into two wolves that were fighting each other and covered in blood. I got off my horse and washed my hands and mouth out, then besought them, saying, ‘You two are revered deities, and enjoy violent affairs. However, if you had run into a hunter, he would have seen you and captured you right away.” Then I dared to stop their fighting, and wiped and cleaned their blood-stained fur, and released them, and their lives were saved.”
The Emperor said, “This certainly must be your reward.” Then he ordered that he attend nearby on him, and gave him a favorable reception, and the man became very rich. Then when the Emperor succeeded, he assigned the man to work in the treasury.
Fourth year, winter, tenth month. Emperor Takeohirokunioshitate [Senka] died. The crown prince Emperor Amakuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa [Kimmei] ordered the myriad ministers, saying, “I am still young and my knowledge is shallow, and am still immature in matters of administration. Empress Yamada is learned in the public offices, so please ask her and then decide.”
Empress Yamada humbled herself, saying, “I have received favor the same as the mountains and seas. The 10,000 machines of government are difficult, so how can they be entrusted to a woman? Now the crown prince respects the old and is kind to the young, is proper in custom to the wise, and through the day takes no food but instead attends on the gentry. On top of that since he was young he was outstandingly clever, and quickly gained fame, his character is wide and open, and in his affairs compassionate and forgiving. I request that the myriad ministers quickly order his ascent so that he may shine throughout the realm.”
Winter, 12th month. On the fifth day, Imperial Prince Amakuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa succeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne. At that time he was still young. The revered Empress became Empress Dowager. Senior General Otomo no Kanamura and Senior General Mononobe no Okoshi were both made Senior Generals, and Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune was made Senior Minister, as they were before.
Establishment of Heirs and Relocation to Shikishima
First year, spring, first month. On the 15th day, the officials requested that an Empress be established. Then the Emperor proclaimed, “As for establishing a legal consort, let it be the daughter of Emperor Takeohirokunioshitate [Senka], Ishihime. She gave birth to two boys and a girl.
The oldest was called Imperial Prince Yatanotamakatsu no Oe. The middle was called Osatanonunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto [Bidatsu]. The youngest was called Imperial Princess Kasanui. She was also called Imperial Princess Satake.
Second month. Gi Jibu, a man of Baekje, naturalized. He was made to live in the country of Yamato, in the district of Upper So, Yama village. He was the ancestor of the Ochibe of Yama village.
Third month. The Emishi and Hayahito together led their people to submission.
Autumn, seventh month. On the 14th day, the capital was moved to the country of Yamato, district of Shiki, to Shikishima. Therefore it became Shikishima no Kanasashi Palace.
Eighth month. Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Gaya all sent messengers with tribute. Also, the Emperor summoned the men of Qin, Han, and other foreigners to naturalize, and they were placed in the countries and districts, and made family registers. The total of Qin registers listed 7513 households, and the tomo no miyatsuko of Hada [Hada is the Japanese for Qin] was made the scribe of the treasury.
Fall of Otomo no Kanamura
Ninth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor visisted Naniwa, Hafuritsu Palace. Senior General Otomo no Kanamura, Kose no Omi Inamochi, and Senior General Mononobe no Okoshi went with him.
The Emperor asked the myriad ministers, “About how much of a force could be needed to attack Silla?”
Senior General Mononobe no Okoshi and the others said, “A small force would not easily be able to conquer them. Previously in the sixth year of Emperor Odo, Baekje dispatched messengers who requested the four countries of Okoshitari, Arushitari, Sada, and Muro in Gaya. Senior General Otomo no Kanamura lightly granted their request, and gave them that which they sought. Therefore the Sillans resentment has built up through the years, and they cannot easily be attacked.”
Then, Senior General Otomo no Kanamura stayed shut up in his house at Suminoe, and saying he was ill did not come to court. The Emperor dispatched Aomi no Otoji Magariko to courteously enquire about him. Then the Senior General said with reverant thanks, “What I am worried about is none other than this: Now the myriad ministers are saying that I caused the fall of Gaya. Therefore I am in fear and do not attend the court,” and he gave a riding horse to the messenger and warmly respected him.
Aomi no Otoji made an honest report to the Emperor. Then the Emperor proclaimed, “For a long time you [Kanamura] have made great effort in loyalty, do not mind what people say.” In the end he was found not guilty, and he shown great favor. The year was 540.
Establishment of Consorts
Second year, spring, third month. Five consorts were set up. The first was the younger sister of the Empress, called Imperial Princess Wakayahime. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Isonokami. The next consort was also the younger sister of the Empress, called Imperial Princess Hikage. She was the younger sister of the Empress, so she was the daughter of Emperor Hinokuma no Takata [Senka]. However, her mother the consorts’ name and her own are not seen, and not in any source. Future generations may be able to figure it out. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Kura.
The next was the daughter of Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune, called Princess Kitashi. Kitashi is read ki-ta-shi, 岐拖志. She gave birth to seven boys and six girls. The first was called Imperial Prince Oe. He became Tachibana no Toyohi no Mikoto [Yomei]. The second was called Imperial Princess Iwakuma. She was also called Imperial Princess Ime. Originally she attended at Ise Shrine, but later she eloped with Imperial Prince Umaraki and released from that duty. The third was called Imperial Prince Atori. The fourth was called Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Mikoto [Suiko]. The fifth was called Imperial Prince Maroko. The sixth was called Imperial Prince Oyake. The seventh was called Imperial Prince Iso no Kamibe. The eighth was called Imperial Prince Yamashiro. The ninth was called Imperial Princess Otomo. The tenth was called Imperial Prince Sakurai. The 11th was called Imperial Princess Katano. The 12th was called Imperial Prince Tachibana no Moto no Waka. The 13th was called Imperial Princess Toneri.
Next was the younger sister by the same mother of Princess Kitashi, called Oane no Kimi. She gave birth to four boys and one girl. The first was Imperial Prince Umaki. The second was Imperial Prince Kazuraki. The third was Imperial Princess Hashihito no Anahobe. The fourth was Imperial Prince Hashihito no Anahobe. He was also called Imperial Prince Amatsuka. In one record his name is also Imperial Prince Sumito. The fifth was Imperial Prince Hatsusebe [Sujun].
By one writing, the first child was Imperial Prince Umaki. The second was Imperial Princess Hashihito no Anahobe. The third was Imperial Prince Hashihito no Anabe, also called Sumito. The fourth was called Imperial Prince Kazuraki, and the fifth was called Imperial Prince Hatsusebe.
By one writing, the first was Imperial Prince Umaki. The second was called Imperial Prince Sumito, and the third was called Imperial Princess Hashihito. The fourth was called Imperial Prince Hashihito no Anahobe, also called Amatsuka. The fifth was called Imperial Prince Hatsusebe. In the Teio Honki [帝王本紀], there are many old characters, and the compilers changed them. As later people learned to read these, the meaning and engraving changed, and as they were copied and re-copied many times, in the end differences cropped up in the orders of births and as to the older and younger siblings. Now according to investigation past and present, we have returned to the correct version. In the cases whre it is difficult to judge, we have followed one version and made notes in detail of differences in others. This goes for later notes as well.
Next was the daughter of Kasuga no Hitsume no Omi, Arako. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Kasuga Yamada and Imperial Prince Tachibana no Maro.
Reading of the Emperor's Order to the Lords of Gaya
Summer, fourth month. The princes [ji-kanki] of Ara, I Tanhae、Dae Buson、and Kuchwiyuri, the high-ranking official of Ara, Go Jeonhae, King [kanki] Jolma, and the son of the king San Banhae, and the lower king [shimo kanki]of Tara Ita, the son of King Sai, the children of other kings, and others, along with Kibi no Omi of the Japanese administration in Gaya (his name is not recorded) went to Baekje, all together heard the reading of an Imperial order. The King of Baekje Seongmyeong said to the Kanki of Gaya and others, “The Emperor of Japan has ordered the complete reconstruction of Gaya. Now using what plan will Gaya be reestablished? How shall each of you, exhausting your loyalty to its limit, serve to develop this sage intention?”
The Kanki of Gaya all replied, “Previously we consulted with Silla again and again, but they will not reply to us. Should we plan in the same direction, and again speak to Silla, they will probably still not reply. Now let us barbarians all send messengers to report to the Emperor. The ones trying to reestablish Gaya follow the plan of the great king, and we will receive his instruction: who would dare to object? However, Gaya borders Silla, and we fear disaster in Tokujun and other places. (The other places refer to Tokukoton and Kara. They mean the loss of Tokujun and the other countries by ‘disaster’).”
King Seongmyeong said, “In olden days, in the time of my ancestors King Sokgo and King Gwisu first dispatched messengers and together exchanged cordial relations with Ara, Kara, and Tokujun, and became like children or younger brothers, and we hoped for consistent prosper. Now they have been deceived by Silla, and made the Emperor angry, and Gaya resents them; this is my mistake. I deeply regret it, and so I dispatched Kahoshiso Sahei Maro and Johokohai Maeno and others to go to Kara and meet [those of the] Japanese administration in Gaya to make allegiance. Since then we have been bound together, and our intention to restore Gaya is not forgotten day or a night. Now the Emperor has proclaimed, ‘Quickly restore Gaya.’ Therefore I want together with you to make a plan and establish the country of Gaya and the other countries. We should plan well. Also at the border of Gaya, we will summon the Sillans, and ask if they will receive this order or no. Then we will dispatch messengers to report what we hear to the Emperor, and respectfully receive his instruction. If the messengers have not yet returned and Silla sees a chance to invade Gaya, I will send aid, so there is nothing to wory about. However, prepare well, and do not forget to carefully guard.
Before, you all said you feared disaster in Tokujun, but it is not because Silla was strong that it took this land. Tokukoton is on the border between Kara and Silla and gets attacked every year, and because Gaya could not send enough aid it was lost. South Kara is tiny, and could not make preparations, and there was no place it could rely on, therefore it was lost. In Tokujun the lord-vassal relationship broke down, and the ruler succomed to Silla on his own, thus it was lost. Therefore we see that the loss of these three countries was natural. Of old Silla has requested aid from Goguryeo and attacked Gaya and Baekje, but has not been able to subdue them. How can Silla easily overtake Gaya on its own? Now you and I, Ryukryeok, will combine our power and hearts, and rely on the Emperor, and Gaya will certainly arise again.” Therefore he gave presents to each of them, and they went home happy.
Collusion between Ara and Silla
Autumn, seventh month. Baekje heard that the Japanese administration in Ara and Silla were exchanging plans, and dispatched Zenho Nasotsu Birimakgo, Nasotsu Seonmun, Chuho Nasotsu Mokjumaesun, Ki no Omi Nasotsu Mimasa, and others (the one called Ki no Omi Nasotsu was probably born of the Omi of Ki who married a woman of Korea. Therefore he stayed in Baekje and became a Nasotsu. His father is unclear. Other cases are all like this) to Ara, to summon the administrators that were going to Silla and consult about rebuilding Gaya. Separately, the head of the Japanese administration of (Ara, Kochi no Atai) was chastised deeply for communicating directly with Silla. The Kudara Honki [百済本紀]says it was Kafuchi no Atai, Akeenashi, and Saromatsu, but it is still unclear.
They said to the Gayans, “Of old our ancestors King Sokgo and King Gwisu, and all the ancient kanki had good relations, in the form of brothers. Therefore you are our child and younger brother, and we are your father and older brother. Together we serve the Emperor and repel strong enemies, and have kept the country safe up to this day. Thinking back on the words of our ancestors and the past Kanki’s words of warm relations is like the brilliant sun, and from that time to now we have attentively cultivated good relations as neighboring countries, whose favor for each other surpasses even that of flesh and bone [blood relations]. That this good start may have such and end, this is what we pray for always. How was it that our connection was treated lightly and we floated apart, and in the space of a few years that intention was lost? People of old said, ‘Pursuing a regretted thing yields nothing’ to describe this. Swearing to the gods in the clouds above and in the springs below that now we will correct the mistakes so that things are as they were in the past and conceal nothing with all exposed, with loyalty passing through to the spirits, and deeply reprimand ourselves: this is what should be done. We hear it is important that the later generations carry their burdens in the wagon tracks made by those before, makes good a hall and structure, completing great deeds. Therefore now we wish to venerate the good relations of past generations, and respect the words of the Emperor’s order, and for the countries loosed by Silla, South Kara and Tokukoton and the others, to return them to how they were originally and move them to Gaya, forever making father and older brother always the court of Yamato. These days our food is not sweet, and we cannot sleep well, and regret and admonish ourselves now, laboring in these thoughts.
That Silla, with sweet words, hopes to deceive, is well-known in the realm, and you all believing the falsities have already fallen into their plans. Now where Gaya’s borders touch those of Silla, we should vigilantly prepare defenses, for how can the watch be delayed? I fear that you all will fall into the trap of their network of deception, and in mourning your country will be lost, and your people captured and imprisoned. When I think back on this, my mind is taxed and I cannot be at ease. I secretly hear that at the place where Gaya and Silla traded schemes at their border, bees and snakes appeared, and that this is widely known. Strange omens are to warn of events to pass, to make people aware of coming disaster. This is the warning statement of shining heaven as a symbol of the previous spirits. Disasters are followed by regret, and thinking of prosper after the realm has been destroyed, who can speak of such things? Now you should show respect, and hear the Emperor’s order, and establish Gaya. Why do you worry about not succeeding? If you want be in your original land for long and forever rule your past subjects, the time for this plan is now. Success or failure rides on your cautiousness.”
Then King Seongmyeong further addressed the Japanese administration in Gaya, saying, “The Emperor ordered ‘If Gaya is destroyed, you lose all of your capital. If Gaya prospers, you will have aid. Now you should reconstruct Gaya, making it like former days, so that you can save yourselves and cultivate the black-haired people.’ Humbly receive this order, and may fear and reverence fill your breasts. Swear truly that you hope for the prosper of Gaya, that it may forever serve the Emperor, just as in days past. Have concern first for advance for things to come, and afterwards let us rest. Now if the administration of Japan in Gaya follows the order of the Emperor and saves Gaya, then the Emperor will certainly praise you, and you will be rewarded and blessed. Again, Japan’s officers have long dwelt in the country of Gaya, near to and touching the borders of Silla. The Sillans true character is already known. They poison and damage Gaya, and plan to defend against Japan, they have up to now, and not only in this year. Yet they do not dare to act, for they are checked by Baekje up close, and fear the Emperor far away. They deceive the court and feign a peaceful face toward Gaya. The reason that I want to stir the feelings of the Japanese administration in Gaya in this way is so that while Gaya has still not been annexed, while the Sillans feign loyalty, I wish you to seek this unpreparedness, raising soldiers to take them. Since the Emperor ordered the reestablishment of Gaya, of South Kara and Tokuri, not more than a few tens years have passed. Yet now Silla will not hear even the slightest of orders, and this is well known. Therefore believe and respect the Emperor, thereby Gaya will be established, for how can this not be? I fear that you ministers will easily believe sweet words, and be deceived to the ruin of Gaya the shame of the Emperor. Ministers, this is your warning, do not be deceived.”
Autumn, seventh month. Baekje dispatched Ki no Omi Nasotsu Mimasaand Chuho Nasotsu Giryeon, and they came to the court and reported about the administration in the country of Lower Kara, and presented a letter.
Fourth year, summer, fourth month. Ki no Omi Nasotsu Mimasaand the others from Baekje went home.
Autumn, ninth month. King Seongmyeong of Baekje dispatched Zenho Nasotsu Jinmogwimun, Kotoku Gijugiru, and Mononobe no Setoku Magamu and others, and they came and presented treasures from Funan and two slaves.
Further Imperial Proclamations to Restore Gaya
Winter, 11th month. On the eighth day, the Emperor dispatched Tsumori no Muraji to deliver a proclamation to Baekje, saying “The magistrates and castle masters of Baekje that are presently in Gaya should be attached to the Japanese administration.” Also he took another proclamation, and reading it said, “You have frequently made declarations that Gaya be restored, and over ten years have passed. Though these declarations are memorialized, the task still remains incomplete. Gaya is the supporting beam of your country, and as it is broken, how can the roof be completed? I say now, quickly restore Gaya. If you quickly restore Gaya, the Atai of Kawachi and others (Kawachi no Atai is mentioned above) will cease of their own accord. Is there something I’m not saying?”
That day, King Seongmyeong finished hearing the Emperor’s order and asked the three Sahei and Naizu, as well as the myriad ministers, “This is the Emperor’s order, how should we proceed?”
The three Sahei answered, “Our ministers in the country of Lower Kara and the castle masters cannot leave us. Concerning the reestablishment of the country, we should quickly abide the sage’s order.”
12th month. King Seongmyeong of Baekje again reported the above proclamation, and at the same time pointed to the myriad ministers, asking “This is the Emperor’s order. How should we proceed?”
The Sokusahei Sadaekgiru, Shisosahei Mokjumana, Otosahei Mok Yungwi, Tokusou Birimakgo, Tokusotsu Dongseong Docheon, Tokusotsu Mokjumaesun, Tokusotsu Guk Suda, and Nasotsu Yeonbi Seonna held counsel together and said, “We are fools, and without knowledge. As for the order to reconstruct Gaya, it is best to quickly go along with the order. Now we should summon the bureacrats of Gaya, and the Kanki of the countries, and together make a plan, then express your intentions to the Emperor. Also, the Atai of Kawachi Enashi, Matsu, and others, are still all in Ara and Gaya, and we fear this will lead to difficulty in reconstructing it. Therefore along with the report, send a request that they be moved back to their home country.”
King Seongmyeong said, “The myriad ministers have counseled, and truly have met my heart.”
That month, Setoku Gobun was dispatched to summon the governers of Gaya and those of the Japanese administration there. All of them replied, “After the first day of the first month, we will come and listen.”
Difficulties Assembling Counsel in Baekje
Fifth year, spring, first month. The country of Baekje dispatched messengers, and summoned the governors of Gaya and those of the Japanese administration there. They all replied, “Now it is the time of making reverence to the gods, so when the festivals finish we will come.”
That month, the King of Baekje dispatched messengers again, and summoned the governors of Gaya and those of the Japanese administration. The Japanese administration and Gaya, all of them did not dispatch their governors, and instead dispatched only trifling people. Therefore, Baekje could not make a plan to reestablish Gaya.
Second month. Baekje dispatched Setoku Mamu, Setoku Gobunok, Setoku Sana Nochaju, and others to Gaya, to entreat the Japanese administration there and the Kanki of Gaya, saying, “We dispatched Kinoomi Nasotsu Mimasa, Nasotsu Giryeon, and Mononobe no Muraji Nasotsu Yong Gada to the Imperial court to pay respects to the Emperor. Mimasa and the others returned from Yamato with an Imperial proclamation saying, “You all should together with the Japanese authoriites quickly make a good reconstruction plan and fufill my wishes. I warn you, do not be decieved.” Also Tsumori no Muraji came to Japan with us (the Kudara Honki says Tsumori no Muraji Komanako, but the wording is incorrect and unclear) and read the order, and asked about the administration of Gaya. Therefore we want to together with the Japanese administration and the governors of Gaya to hold counsel and establish an administration in Gaya, so complying with the order of the Emperor, dispatched a summons three times, but you still have not come. Therefore we could not together make a plan for Gaya’s administration, in accordance with the will of the Emperor. Now we want to ask Tsumori no Muraji to come and stay, and separately send an immediate messenger to report the circumstances to the Emperor. In 3 months and ten days, we will send a messenger to Japan. When he arrives, the Emperor will certainly question him. You ministers of the Japanese administration and Kanki of Gaya, each should send messengers, together with our messengers, and go to hear the proclamation of the Emperor.”
Seperately they entreated Kawachi no Atai (According the Kudara Honki, Kawachi no Atai, I Nasa and Mado, but the words are corrupted and is it unknown what is correct) “From far back up to now, we only hear evil of you. Your ancestors are said to be (by the Kudara Honki, your ancestors Nanda Kohai and Karoujiki Kohai, or alternatively, Naganta Gapbae and Garapjikgi Gapbae. The words are corrupted and it is unclear) all had crafty characters and decieved people. Ikaka no Kimi (in the Kudara Honki, Ikakimi, named Uhiki) also believed those words, and did not greive for the difficulties of his country, and rebelling turned his back to our hearts, gave free reign to cruelties, and therefore was expelled. Because of that, you all have come to Gaya, and you have consistently engaged in no-goods. Gaya is damaged day by day, and you are the reason. You are like a trifle, like a tiny person setting fire to the moutains and fields, which then extends to the villages. Therefore you engage in evil acts, and will destroy Gaya, and the imperial domains of all the countries west of the sea will not long be able to serve the Emperor. Now we will dispatch a report to the Emperor asking that you be returned to your home country. You go and hear his order.”
Also they entreated the Japanese administration and the Kanki of Gaya, saying, “As for rebuilding the country of Gaya, without borrowing the strength of the Emperor, who could do it? Therefore I thought to seek the aid of the Emperor and ask for soldiers to save Gaya. As for the rations for the soldiers, I was going to transport them. The number of soldiers is still not established, and as to where I would transport the stores, it is not yet decided. I wanted us to be in one place and all together discuss this possibility, and select the best plan to report it to the Emperor. Though I frequently sent messengers to summon you, you didn’t come, and we were not able to consult.”
The Japanese administration answered, “The reason that the governerors of Gaya did not come to the summons is because we did not dispatch them, and they could not go. We sent word to the Emperor, and when the messenger returned he read a proclamation saying, “I will dispatch Iga no Omi (Name unknown) to Silla, and Tsumori no Muraji to Baekje. You wait and hear my order, and there is no need to go to Silla or Baekje yourselves.” That was the order he read. We heard your summons right when Iga no Omi went to Silla, and so we went to the Emperor and asked his order. The Emperor said, “The omi of Yamato and the governors of Gaya should go to Silla, and abide by the Emperor’s order.” We had no order to go to Baekje. Afterwards Tsumori no Muraji came back here and said, “Now the reason I have been dispatched to Baekje is to take over the Bakeje magistrates and castle masters in the country of Lower Kara.” This is all we heard, not that Gaya and the Japanese administration should meet in Baekje. Therefore we didn’t come, it is not because of the Gayans.”
Then, the Kanki of Gaya said, “Therefore when the messenger came with the summons, we wanted to participate. But the minister of the Japanese administration would not let us set out, so we didn’t come. The great king [Seongmyeong], for rebuilding Gaya, touches our hearts. We are happy beyond words.”
Dispatch from Baekje to Yamato
Third month. Baekje dispatched Natoku Ajeok Deukmun, Kose no Nasotsu Gama, Mononobe no Nasotsu Gabi, and others, to report to the Emperor, saying, “The Nasotsu Mimasaand Nasotsu Giryeonand others returned to our land and read the Imperial order, ‘You all should together with the Japanese administration make a good plan and quickly restore Gaya. I warn you, do not be decieved.’ Also Tsumori no Muraji and others came to our land, and with Imperial orders, asked about the restoration of Gaya. We respectully truly came with the order, and did not dare delay, and wanted to make a plan. Then we dispatched a messenger to summon the Japanese administration and Gaya. (According to the Kudara Honki, disaptched Ugoha no Omi with the summons. Probably this is Ikuha no Omi). Then they said, ‘The new year is already here, we will come after it passes.’ For a long time they did not come. So we sent again a messenger with a summons, and they replied, ‘Now is the time of festivals, we will come after it passes.’ Then for a long time they did not come, so we again dispatched a messenger with the summons. Therefore they sent lower-ranked people, and we could not plan together. That those of Gaya did not come, it was not their wish. Akeenashi and Saromatsu (two names seen above), it is a treachery of their making. The people of Gaya follow Ara like an older brother. To the people of Ara the Japanese administration is like heaven, and they only followed its wishes. In the Kudara Honki, it says that Ara is like the father, and the Japanese administration is like the root. Now Ikuha no Omi, Kibi no Omi, and Kochi no Atai all follow the directions of Mimasa and Giryeon. Mimasaand Giryeon, though they are of low standing houses, are running the Japanese administration as they want. Also Gaya is being obstructed and cannot send messengers. Therefore we cannot plan together in reply to the Emperor’s order. Therefore staying Komanako (probably Tsumori no Omi), I sent other messengers as swift as birds to report to the Emperor. If these two (these two being Mimasaand Giryeon) are in Ara, they will do much falsehood, and complicate the rebuilding of Gaya, and the countries of the western sea cannot serve the Emperor. Humbly we request these two be transferred, and returned to their home country, and that you order that to make a plan together with the Japanese administration and Gaya to restore Gaya. Therefore I dispatched Nasotsu Mimasaand NasotsuGiryeon, and again Komanako to hear the Emperor’s order. It was ‘Ikuha no Omi and others (Others being Kibi no Otokimi no Omi and Kochi no Atai) going to Silla was not my desire. Ikimi (unclear) and Aro no Kanki returend to Silla, and could not do farm work. Then Baekje was far away and could not save them. Therefore Ikuah no Omi came to Silla, and were able to get leave to plant seeds. As I said before: if Gaya is rebuilt, Mimasa and Giryeon will of their own accord submit. Is there something I didn’t say?’
I humbly received this order, and felt happiness and fear in my breast. Then Silla deceived the court, and knew how to stop the Emperor’s order. Silla, that spring, took Tokujun and drove out our guards from Kuremure, and occupied it. In the nearby country of Ara, Ara was planting seeds. Nearby was Kuremure, and Silla was planting seeds. They planted together, and did not attack each other. Then Mimasaand Koren crossed the border and planted there, and in the sixth month escaped. After Ikimi came at the time of Kose no Omi (by the Kudara Honki, After I stayed Imiki when Kose no Omi came. All still unclear) Silla did not attack any other country’s border. There was nothing about Ara being in duress and unable to plant seeds. I hear that every spring and autumn, Silla assembles many soldeirs, and wants to attack Ara and Nomure, and that Kara also will be attacked. Around that time I got a letter, and dispatched soldiers, and embracing protected Gaya, and had no idle breaths. I raised spirited troops, as I ought to go to rescue them. Thereby Gaya accordingly could prepare for seed planting, and Silla did not dare to attack them. When it was reported that Baekje was far away, and unable to help quickly, therefore Ikuha no Omi went to Silla, and they were able to plant seeds, the above is deception of the court, an diabolical scheme. If this has been made clear, and the Emperor was deceived, in other things there are certiainly many lies as well. While Ikuha no Omi and the others dwell in Ara, I fear it will be difficult to reestablish Gaya. You should quickly have him retire. I am deeply afraid. Saromatsu is born of Korea, and a Senior General, and mingles with the Japanese authorities, going in with those of honor and distinction. But now he wears the crown of a Silla Namare, and which side he is on is clear, and easily distinguished. Often watching his actions, there is no fear or reverence in him. Previously I reported his evils to the Emperor, and they are recorded. Now he wears other clothing, and day after day goes into Silla, and his comings and goings are known public and private, and he has no fear. That Tokujun was overthrown, this is why. Ganhe Kanki of Tokujun was duplicitous, and colluded with Silla, so Kara came from outside and fought with Silla, this is why it was overthrown. If Ganhe Kanki had not colluded with them, though Tokujun be small, it would certainly not have been lost. Now the fall of Tokujun is also natural. If the King of Tokujun had not colluded with Silla and invited in outsiders, how would he have been overthrown? If you look at the history of disasters of these many countries, all of them stemmed from a turncoat. Now Mado and others have given their hearts to Silla, and wear their clothing and go in and out day and night, and have secret designs in evil hearts. I fear Gaya is the cause of endless overthrowment. If Gaya is overthrown, our country will be alone and in danger. But if we tribute the court, how can this come to pass? Respectfully wish the Emperor deep reflection far seeing, quickly return them to their home land and safeguard Gaya.”
Winter, tenth month. The messengers of Baekje Nasotsu Deukmun, Nasotsu Gama, and the others went home.
According to the Kudara Honki, in winter, tenth month, Nasotsu Deukmun, Nasotsu Gama, and the others, came back from Japan saying, “Concerning Kochi no Atai, I Nasa, and Gado and the others, there was no order.”
Baekje Again Makes a Summons
11th month. Baekje dispatched messengers to summon the lords of the Japanese administration and the governors of Gaya, saying, “We dispatched Nasotsu Deukmun, Kose no Nasotsu Gama, and Mononobe Nasotsu Gabiand others, and they have come back from Japan. Now the Japanese administration Omi and the governors of Gaya should come and hear the Emperor’s order, and all counsel about Gaya.”
Kibi no Omi of Japan, Arushi Kanki Taifuson and Kusunuri of Ara, Okoshishui Kodenkei, Sotsuma no Kishi, Shiniki no Kishi, and the son of Sanhange no Kishi of Kara, Nishui Kotsugenchi of Tara, the Kanki of Shita, and the Kanki of Kosa all came to Baekje.
Then, King Seongmyeong of Baekje made clear the plan of the Emperor’s proclamation, showing them saying, “I dispatched Nasotsu Mimasa, Nasotsu Giryeon, Nasotsu Yong Gada, and others to the court in Japan. The Emperor proclaimed, “Quickly restore Gaya.” Also Tsumori no Muraji reported an imperial order, and asked about the status of Gaya. Therefore I dispatched a summons. How can we restore Gaya? Let each state his plan.”
Kibi no Omi and the Kanki of Gaya and others said, “As for the restoration, its doing lies within the great king [Seimei]. We will respect the King, and abide by the Emperor’s order.”
Then King Seongmyeong said, “The country of Gaya to our Baekje, from ancient days to now, is tied as a child and younger brother. Now Ikimi of the Japanese administration (Ikimi was a name of a minister in the Japanese administration) has already attacked [colluded with] Silla, and also plans to attack us. Also he easily heard the lies of the Sillans. As for Imiki being dispatched to Gaya, it is unlikely that it was for the purpose of attacking our country (unclear). From olden days up to now, the Sillans have lacked the way. They eat their words and violate trust, and overthrew Tokujun, our faithful allie. I want to make them regret it. Therefore I dispatched a summons, that all could receive the blessing of the imperial proclomation, and wanted to maintain the country of Gaya, just like ancient days, forever as brother and sister. I secretly hear Silla and Ara, on the border of the two countries, there is a great river, and it is a strategic position. I want to occupy this place, and repair the six castles there. Humbly seeking 3,000 troops from the Emperor, every castle will be amply supplied with 500, and combined with our own soldiers. We will make them unable to make fields and compromise them, and then the five castles of Kuremure will on their own throw down their arms and their rulers will fall. Thus the country of Tokujun will be restored. As for the soldiers I requested, I will provide them with provisions. This is the first plan I want to report to the Emperor.
Next, as to the placement of the magistrates and castle masters in South Kara, how could I want to defy the Emperor and obstruct the roads for bearing tribute? Only I wish to overcome and help the many difficulties, and strike at the strong enemy. To all of the evildoers, who is not wanting to associate with them? The northern enemy [Koryo] is powerful, and my country is weak, If we do not place governors and castles managers in South Kara, we cannot keep up the defense or hold up against the powerful enemy, and if we cannot do this we also cannot restrain Silla. Therefore I place them to attack Silla and protect Gaya. If they are not there, I fear I will witness my destruction, and cannot serve the court. This is the second plan I wish to submit to the Emperor.
Also, Kibi no Omi, Kochi no Atai, I Nasa, and Mado, they are all in Gaya, and the Emperor has called us to rebuilt Gaya, but this is impossible. I will request to have these four transferred back to their home villages. This is the third plan I want to submit to the Emperor. We should, with the Omi of the Japanese administration, the Kanki of Gaya, and others all send messengers to report the same thing of the Emperor, and hear his blessed orders.”
Then, Kibi no Omi and the Kanki all said, “The great king has said three plans, and they are together with our humble feelings. Now we want to return respectfully to the ministers of Japan (the ministers of the Japanese administration), the Koshiki of Ara, the Koshiki of Kara and dispatch messages together to the Emperor. This truly is a once in a lifetime chance, and should it not be deeply considered and maturely planned?
Coming of the Mishihase
12th month. In the country of Koshi it was said, “In Sado Island in the north at Minabe shore, Mishihase riding one ship drifted and settled. In the spring and summer they catch fish and eat plentifully. The people of the island say they aren’t human, but are demons, and do not dare draw near to them. In the east of the island at the village of Umu, the people collect evergreen tree nuts and cook them to eat, putting them in the ash and roasting them. Then two of the shells of the nut became two men, and they jumped one shaku above the fire and fought with each other for a short time. The villagers thought it strange and took and placed them in the garden. Then like before they jumped out and fought with each other to no end. Then one person divined, ‘In these villagers there certainly is a demon spirit causing mayhem.’ Not long after this was said, it truly tcame to pass. Then the Mishihase moved to Senakawa no Ura. There the god is terrible and angry, and the people do not dare to draw near. They got thirsty and drank the water there, and about half of them died. The bones stacked up enough to fill a cavern, and it was named Mishihase no Kuma.”
Sixth year, spring, third month. The Emperor dispatched Kashiwade no Omi Hasuhi to Baekje as a messenger.
Spring, fifth month. Baekje dispatched Nasotsu Giryeon, Nasotsu no Yong Gada, Setoku Chajudeung, and others to report to the Emperor.
Autumn, ninth month. Baekje dispatched Chuho Kotoku Boje and others to Gaya. They presented treasures of Wu to the ministers of the Japanese administration and all the Kanki, each of different value.
Creation of a Buddhist Statue for Japan
That month, Baekje made a six-jo buddhist statue and made a prayer, saying, “We hear that if you make a six-jo buddhist statue, great virtue will abound. Now we have humbly made one, and for this great virtue, we wish the Emperor to have it, and then the miyake countries of the Emperor will also reap good fortune. Also we wish that all the people under heaven will achieve enlightenment. Therefore we made it.”
Winter, 11th month. Kashiwade no Omi Hasuhi returned from Baekje and said, “I was dispatched as a messenger, and with my wife and child went. When I arrived at the beach in Baekje (beach probably means the beach of the sea), the sun was going down, so I stayed there, and my child suddenly disappeared, and I did not know where he went. That night there was heavy snow, and when the sun came up I began to search for him, and there were the tracks of a tiger. I girded my sword and put on my armor, and came to the den of the tiger. Then I loosed my sword and said, ‘I humbly received the my orders, and with great pains at land and sea combed my hair with the wind, bathed in the rain, made a pillow of the grass, and slept in the brambles, and for the child I love, I am tied to the duties of a father. Though you are a terrible god, you love your children just the same. Last night my child went missing, and I tracking him in search came here. I do not fear for my life, but want to take my revenge!’ Then the tiger came forth, and opening its mouth made to bite. Hasuhi then suddenly extended his left hand, and seized the tiger’s tongue, then with his right he stabbed it to death, and skinning it returned with its hide.
That year, there was a great revolt in Goguryeo, and those put to death were many. According to the Kudara Honki, in the 12th month, Kinoe Uma, in the country of Goguryeo, Segun and Jogun fought in the gates of the palace, sounding the drums and waging war. Segun lost and did not disperse its soldiers for three days, and so they completely captured and put to death the children and grandchildren of Segun. On the 24th day, Nuta no Suori Koke [King Angen]died.
Seventh year, spring, first month. On the third day, the emmisary to Baekje Chuho Giryeon and others returned. He was granted 70 good horses and 10 ships.
Summer, sixth month. On the 12th day, Baekje dispatched Chuho Nasotsu Yak Yeopye and others with tribute.
Autumn, seventh month. It was said in the country of Yamato, district of Imaki, “In the fifth year, spring, Kawahara no Tami no Atai Miya (Miya is a name) built a great platform and looked afar, and saw a good horse. It was the child of the pasture horse that was lost by Nie, the fisherman of Kii). When the horse looked at a shadow it neighed, and it easily jumped over its mother’s back. So he bought this horse, and raised it, and years passed. When it was grown it jumped like an wild goose and flew like a dragon, and supassed all other horses. When ridden it submitted to the heart of its rider, when galloped its steps were even. It even jumped the valley of Ochi no Oka, a distance of 18 jo. Kawahara no Tami no Atai Miya was from the village of Hinokuma.
That year, there was a great revolt in Goguryeo. All of those who fought and died numberd more than 2000.
According to the Kudara Honki, in Goguryeo, in the first month, Hi no Euma, the child Yomo of Kunoorikuku [King Yogen] was made King. At that time, he was eight years old. Kokuorikoke [King Angen] had three Orikuku, but no Makariorikuku [legal heirs], so the Kunoorikuku gave birth to the Makaiyomo [the heir]. His uncle was Sogun. The Shisoorikuku also gave birth to a child, and its uncle was Saigun. When Kokuorikoke’s illness became serious, Saigun and Sogun each wanted his relation to become the heir. Therefore Saigun killed over 2000 people.
Military Aid Comes from Yamato
Eighth year, summer, fourth month. Baekje dispatched Zenho Tokusotsu Moseonmun, Nasotsu Gama, and others to request military aid. For that, they offered as tribute Kaho Dongseong Jaeon in exchange for Tokusotsu Munhyu Mana.
Ninth year, spring, first month. On the third day, the messenger from Baekje Zenho Tokusotsu Moseonmun and the others requested to return home. Therefore the Emperor proclaimed, “As to the military aid, I will certainly dispatch it. You should quickly report this to your king.”
Summer, fourth month. On the third day, Baekje dispatched Chuho Kansotsu Yak Yeopye and others, who reported to the Emperor, “Tokusotsu Moseonmun and the others reporting the Emperor’s edict arrived to us, saying, ‘The military aid will come shortly.’ We respectfully received the Emperor’s benevolent proclomation, and joyously celebrated to no end. However at the battle of Mashin no Sashi (first month, Kanotonoushi. Goguryeo led an army and surrounded Mashin no Sashi. The prisoners of war said, ‘It is because of Ara and the Japanese administration that they were invited to come and urged to attack.’ That this event is in accordance with the circumstances, it certainly seems possible. However, three times, we wanted to confirm these words, and sent a summons to both of them, and they did not come. Therefore we are very worried. Humbly we request Kashikoki Sumera Mikoto (the western countries all called the Emperor this name) first investigate this matter, and stop the recuse troops, and await our report.”
The Emperor proclaimed, “I hear your petition, and see what you are worried about: that the Japanese administration and Ara do not aid in the difficulties of the neighboring countries, this worries me as well. However, that they sent a secret messenger to Goguryeo, this I cannot believe. If I ordered it of course they would send it, but without an order how could they? I wish the King open his collar and loosen his belt, and calm himself, and not fall into deep suspicion. You should together with Gaya, according to the previous order, extinguish your power in defending against the northern enemy, and protect each fief. I will send a number of men to fill the void land left by those who fled Ara.”
Sixth month. On the second day, a messenger was dispatched to proclaim to Baekje, “After Tokusotsu Seonmun returned home, how are things going? I hear your country was attacked by Goguryeo. Together with Gaya you should plan together and defend against them.”
Intercalary seventh month. On the 12th day, the messengers Yak Yeopye and others dispatched by Baekje went home.
Winter, tenth month. The Emperor dispatched 370 men to Baekje, to aid in constructing a castle in Tokunishi.
Tenth year, summer, sixth month. On the seventh day, Shotoku Gugwi, Kotoku Ma Chamun, and others requested to go home. Then the Emperor proclaimed, “That Yeon Nasa and Madosecretly dispatched messengers to Goguryeo, I will send a messenger to inquire whether it is true or false. As for the soldiers, as you requested, I will put off sending them.
Baekje Attacks Goguryeo
11th year, spring, second month. On the tenth day, the Emperor dispatched a messenger with a proclomation to Baekje. (According to the Kudara Honki, in the third month, 12th day, the messenger from Japan Ahita came leading three ships, and arrived in the lower capital). The proclomation said, “I, according, to the message of Setoku Gugwi and the Kotoku Ma Jinmun et. al, have instructed on each point, so it is like looking at the palm of your hand. I want you to take them to heart, and hope you will embrace them, so that after the envoy returns, things may be like always with no change. Now only I want you to inspect this plan and send a messenger in reply. Also I hear that Nasotsu Mamu is the king’s trusted servant. Reporting to those above and commanding those below, he is in line with the King's heart and at his side. If you wish the safety of your country, and that it may forever be a miyake of the Emperor, you should make Mamu ambassador and send him to the court. A further decree stated: “I hear that the northern enemies are very violent. Therefore I grant you 30 sets of arrows which you may use to defend one place.
Summer, fourth month. On the first day, the Japanese representative residing in Baekje wanted to come home. The Kudara Honki says, fourth month, first day Ka no Etatsu, the Japanese Ahita returned.
The King of Baekje Seongmyeong requested of the representative, “Concerning Gaya, I will according to the order firmly protect it. Concerning Enashi and Matsu, whether they are recalled or not, I will simply follow the imperial order.” Therefore they sent as tribute six slaves from Goguryeo, and also presented one of the King’s slaves. All attacked Nishin and were slaves captured there. On the 16th day, Baekje dispatched Chuho Nasotsu Pi Gugeun and Kaho Setoku Jak Ganna and tributed ten slaves of Goguryeo.
12th year, spring, third month. 1000 wheat seeds were granted to the King of Baekje.
That year, King Seongmyeong of Baekje on his own led his troops and those of the two countries (the two countries were Silla and Gaya) and attacked Goguryeo, and caputred Kanjo. Also the army advanced and attacked Heijo, and restored the six counties (that had been taken by Goguryeo).
13th year, summer, fourth month. Imperial Prince Yata no Tamakatsu no Oe died.
Fifth month. Uchi no Etatsu. Baekje, Kara, and Ara dispatched Chuho Tokusotsu Mokju Geumdon, Kochibe no Asabida, and others to report to the Emperor, saying, “Goguryeo and Silla are planning together to overthrow our country and Gaya. Therefore we humbly request troop support, to preemptively attack during their uncertainty. As for the army’s size, we leave it to the Emperor’s order.”
The Emperor proclaimed, “Now the King of Baekje, the King of Ara, the Japanese administration servants, and others, sent messengers so I hear their intentions. Again with Gaya they should put their hearts together into one power as they have up to now, and they will be covered by the fortune of the Emperor’s protection and can depend on the miracle of the Emperor.”
Transmission of Buddhism to Japan
Winter, tenth month. King Seongmyeong of Baekje, also called, King Seong, dispatched Seihou Kishi Tatsusotsu Norisachigye and others, and tributed one gold and bronze Shaka statue, some banners and umbrellas, and a number of sutra scrolls. In a separate letter, he praised the circulation of Buddhism and the virtue of worship, saying, “This doctrine is, among many, the absolute best. The Duke of Zhou and Confucious even cannot know it. This doctrine can create unfathomable and unending fortune and virtue resulting in divine retribution, and allow people to achieve the unending Bodai (enlightement). Like a man who holds treasures according to the desires of his heart and may use them to depletion according to his feelings, this rare doctrine’s treasure is such as this. Prayers are granted according to feeling, and nothing is in want. It has come from far-off India into the the three kingdoms of Korea, and of all who hear its teachings, there are none who do not revere it. Therefore from afar the King your servant Myeong humbly dispatches my servant Norisachi to present it to the Empire, that it may spread in the capital provinces. By this the Buddha’s saying “My doctrine will spread to the East” will be fufilled.”
That day, the Emperor heard this to the finish, and danced with joy, and proclaimed to the messenger, “I have from the past up to now never been able to hear of such a nuanced doctrine as this. However I cannot decide about it.”
Then he asked the myriad ministers one by one, saying, “The western foreign countries have tributed this Buddha, and it is something never seen before. Should we worship it or no?”
Then Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune addressed the Emperor, saying, “The western foreign countries all worship it, how can the Yamato of bountiful autumns alone go against?”
Senior General Mononobe no Okoshi and Nakatomi no Muraji no Kamako both said, “The king and ruler of our state has always celebrated and worshipped the 180 gods of heaven and earth, land and grain, in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. If now we worship these foreign gods, we fear the anger of the gods of our own country.”
The Emperor said, “We should attach them to the man who requested them, Iname no Sukune, to test worshipping them.”
The Senior Minister knelt and received it, and was delighted, and safely placed the small statue in his home in Oharida. He zealously worked for enlightenment, and therefore made his house in Mukahara into a temple.
After this, there was a plague in the country, and the people arrived at disaster. For a long time it grew more and more, and could not be cured. Senior General Mononobe no Okoshi and Nakatomi no Muraji no Kamako both said, “That time before you didn’t go with our plan, so now the people are dying of disease. Now it’s not too late, and if you return to the way things were before, certainly it will get better. You should quickly throw away the statues, in order to seek good fortune in the future.”
The Emperor said, “As you say.” Then by order the statue was taken and thrown into the resevoir of Naniwa, and the temple was set on fire and completely burned up. Then, there was no wind or rain in the skies, suddenly fire broke out in the grand palace.
That year, Baekje abandoned Kan castle and Heibo. Silla threfore went into Kan castle, which is now Gozuho and Nimiho of Silla. (These places are unclear).
Baekje Requests Aid, Yamato Requests Skilled Individuals
14th year, spring, first month. On the 12th day, Baekje dispatched Shoho Tokusotsu Gwaya Chaju, Kansotsu Ye Saedon, and others to request soldiers. On the 13th day, the Baekje messengers Nakaho Kansotsu Mokju Geumdon, Kochibe no Asabida, and others returned home.
Summer, first month. On the first day, people in the country of Kawachi said, “In the district of Izumi from the sea of Chinu there is a Buddhist noise. Its echo is like hearing thunder, and its shining brillance is like the sun.
The Emperor thought it strange and dispatched Ikehe no Atai (that here he is called Atai, and his name is not written is probably a mistake in from transcription). He went into the sea in search, At that time, Ikehe no Atai went into the sea, and saw a camphor tree floating like a jade gem, and took it and presented it to the Emperor. The Emperor ordered carptenters to make two Buddhist statues. Now they are in the temple of Yoshino, the camphor tree statues that give forth light.
Sixth month. The Emperor dispatched Uchi no Omi (name not recorded) to Baekje. He received two good horses, two boats of moroki, 50 bows, and 50 sets of arrows. He read the proclomation, “The army you requested will be according to the King’s wish.”
In a separate edict, “A doctor, a sorcerer, and a calendar man should be sent in exchange. The afore mentioned people are just at the year and month of exchange, and should be sent when the messenger returns. Also, divining books, a calendars, and various medicines should also be sent.”
Autumn, seventh month. On the fourth day, the Emperor visited Kusunomagari Palace. Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune received an order to dispatch Ojinni to record the tax on various boats. Accordingly Ojinni became a captain, and was therefore given the name Fune no Fubito. Now he is the ancestor of the Fune no Muraji.
Baekje Guarantees Provisions in Exchange for Troops
Eighth month. On the seventh day, Baekje dispatched Shouhou no Nasotsu Gwaya Sinla, Kaho Kotoku Munhyu Daesan, and others, and they reported to the Emperor, “Last year we all held counsel, and dispatched Uchi no Omi Tokusotsu Chaju, ministers of Gaya, and others to report on the various miyake byeond the sea, and humbly awaited your proclomation, like spring grass looking up to the sweet rain. This year, we suddenly heard that Silla and Goguryeo are exchaging plans, saying, ‘Baekje and Gaya frequently visit Yamato. This meaning is to probably to request soldiers, to attack our countries. If this is true, then our countries will be destroyed, and we should plan for an opportunity and wait, then in the period before Yamato dispatches soldiers, attack and take Ara, and sever the road to Yamato.’ Their plan is like this. We heard it now, and deeply feel danger in our breast. Accordingly we dispatched messengers in swift boats, rushing so you could hear this report. Humbly we request the Emperor’s benevolence in quickly dispatching vanguard and rearguard troops, continuing to come in rescue. During the autumn we want to want to fortify the miyake beyond the sea. If they are late, it will be as vain as trying to bite one’s own navel. Dispatch troops in number, come to our country, and we will supply the cost of clothing and provisions amply. Even if you come to Gaya, it will be the same. If Gaya cannot provide these things, our country will certainly aid in sufficiency, and it will be ordered that there be no lack.”
Seperately, there was a message that said “Ikuha no Omi humbly received the Emperor’s order and came in consolation to our country. Morning and night he worked in all the administrations, therefore the foreign lands beyond the sea all praised his goodness, and we wished that for 10,000 years he could stay to make clean the lands beyond the sea. Unfortunately, he died, to our deep regret. Now as for Gaya, who can correct its rule? We humbly beg the Imperial benevolence quickly send someone in exchange to hold his place in Gaya. Also the lands beyond the sea are all considerably poor in bows and horses from the past until now, and receiving the Emperor’s gift they became stronger. Humbly we request you make good on these words, granting many bows and horses.”
Baekje Attack Goguryeo
Winter, tenth month. On the 20th day, the Prince of Baekje Yeochang (the child of King Myeong, King Wideok) completely dispatched the soldiers in the country against the country of Goguryeo, and building fortifications at Yuri no Nosoko, had his soldiers sleep and eat. That night he looked out, and the great fields and mounds were fertile, the wide fields overflowing, and traces of people scarce, nor heard the voices of dogs, and suddenly he heard the sound of drums. Yeochang was greatly shocked, and struck drums in return, and spent the night fortifying and preparing. At daybreak he looked again, and in the like green mountains covering the wide fields, military flags were plentiful.
That dawn, the was a rider with an armored collar, two riders with kusubis [a kind of gong] (the character for Kusubi is unclear), two riders of men with panther tails, all together five riders, who had arrived with their reigns lined up together, asking “The small children say, ‘In our fields, there are guests.’ How can you fail to greet them? Now we want you to quickly get to know us, and according to proper manners, ask your name, rank, and age.”
Yeochang said in reply, “My name is the same [I have the same as your king], my rank Kansotsu, and age 29.” Baekje then asked in reply, and therefore they replied in the same manner as Baekje, Then they raised their banners and fought.
At that time, this Baekje’s spearmen stabbed the brave soldiers of Goguryeo from their horses and beheaded them. Then he thrust the end of his spear into the heads and returned to show the massed troops. The generals of Goguryeo were enraged, and the roar of voices of the the troops of Baekje was like to rip the heavens and earth. Then the deputy generals of Baekje struck their drums and fought violently, chasing the Goguryeon King to the top of Mt. Tojosen.
The Emperor Orders 10,000 to Baekje
15th year, spring, first month. On the seventh day, imperial Prince Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto was made crown prince. On the ninth day, Baekje dispatched Chuho Mokura Setoku Muncha, Zenho Setoku Walsa Bunok, and others to Tsukushi, and consulting with the Interior Minister Saeki no Muraji they said, “Tokusotsu Chaju, Kansotsu Saedon, and others last year intercalary month fourth day arrived saying, ‘We heard [those dispatched by] the minister (the minister meant is the interior minister) will arrive next year, first month.’ We came to investigate if this is so. If they come, how many is their number. We wish to hear the number so we can make a new military camp.”
They also said separately, “We heard that by the Emperor’s order you came to Tsukushi to leading the troops he granted us. Hearing this, there is nothing that could compare with our joy. This year’s campaign will be much more dangerous then the last, so we ask that you dispatch these troops and so that they them arrive by the first month.”
Then, the interior minister reported the Emperor’s order and said, “Accordingly I order aid of 1,000 troops, 100 horses, and 40 ships be dispatched.”
Second month. Baekje dispatched Kaho Kansotsu Shogun Samgwi, Shoho Nasotsu Mononobe no Kaku, and others to request aid troops.
Also, they tributed Tokusotsu Dongseong Jamakgo in exchange for the previous hostage Nasotsu Dongseong Jaeon, the Confucian scholar Wang Ryugwi for Kotoku Ma Jeongan, and the monk Damhye and eight others for the monk Dosim and six others. By a separate edict, they tributed the Confucian scholar Setoku Wang Doryang, the calendar-man Kotoku Wang Boson, the doctor Nasotsu Wang Yuryeonta, the herb-men Setoku Ban Yangpung and Kotoku Jeong Yuta, and the pharmacists Setoku Samgeun, Kitoku Komacha, Kitoku Jinno, and Taitoku Jinta. All the exchanges were granted according to request.
Third month. On the first day, the messenger from Baekje Chuho Mokura Setoku Muncha and the others returned home.
Summer, fifth month. On the third day, the Interior Minister, leading the ships, made for Baekje.
Winter, 12th month. Baekje dispatched Kaho Kansotsu Munsa Ganno to report to the Emperor, “The King of Baekje Myeong, all of the Japanese ministers in Ara, and all of the Kanki in Gaya say that the Sillans are wicked and do not fear the Emperor, and with Goguryeo together heart want to overthrow the miyake of the countries across the sea. We planned together and dispatched the interior ministers and dared to request soldiers to attack Silla. Then the minister that the Emperor dispatched arrived leading a force in the sixth month. We were overjoyed. In the 12th month, ninth day, they were dispatched to invade Silla. We first dispatched to the East Azukari Mononobe no Makamu no Muraji, and had him attack from that direction Kanmure no Sashi. The Inteior Minister dispatched Tsukushi no Mononobe no Magawasaka, who could shoot fire-arrows. Covered with the Emperor’s protection, at 6 PM that month, ninth day, the castle was burned down. Therefore we dispatched a messenger by a quick boat to report.”
Then they said in addition, “If it is only Silla, then the troops led by the Interior Minister are sufficient. Now Goguryeo and Silla make plans and extinguish their power together, and in that case it wil be difficult to have victory. We humbly request you dispatch the soldiers stationed at Tsukushi, to come to help our country, and also save Gaya – by this victory is assured.”
They also said, “We also dispatched an army of 10,000 to help Gaya, and send notification of this. Now things are dangerous, so we dispatched a messenger by a fast boat. We also tribute two good bells, one fur rug, 300 axes, and captured from the castle, two men and five women, though they are so thin we fear to put them to use.
King Wideok Attacks Silla, Death of King Seong
Yeochang planned to attacked the Sillans, so the the elders admonished him, “Heaven has still [not given it to our country], certainly disaster will follow.”
Yeochang said, “Elders, what are you afriad of? I serve the great country [Yamato], what is there to fear?” Then he went into Silla, and built the fortress of Kudamura. His father Myeong worried about his long endeavor on the field, going for long times without food or sleep, greatly lacking his father’s benevolence, and with fillial obligations to his son unfufilled. So on his own he went (to the battlefield) to comfort his son’s labor.
The Sillans heard that King Myeong himself had come, and suddenly raised all the soldiers in their country, and cut the roads and attacked him. At that time (the king) of Silla said to Sachisuki no Umakaiyatsuko no Kotsu (also called Kokuchi), “Kotsu is a poor slave, and Seimei is a famous king. Now let the poor slave kill the famous king. In later generations, it will be something unforgettable in people’s mouths.”
Then, Kotsu captured King Myeong, and made obesiance, saying, “I request to take the King’s head.”
King Myeong replid, “The King’s head is not fit to be received by the hand of a slave.”
Then Kotsu said, “Our country’s law says that in the case of violation of an alliance the King’s head will be received by the hand of a slave.” One book says, King Myeong sat down on a chair, loosed the sword in his belt and bestowed it on Kotsu to kill him. King Myeong looked up to heaven and sighed, cried, and said, “When I think of that, my body hurts to the marrow. In reflection, there is no way I can keep living.” Then he extended his next for receiving the cut. Kotsu beheaded him and killed him, and dug a hole and buried him.
By one book, Silla buried King Myeong’s head, and sent his bones to Baekje. Now the King of Silla buried King Myeong’s bones below the stairs of the northern hall of the palace, and named this building Todo.
Conversely, Yobo was surrounded and escape was not possible. The soldeirs panicked in fear, and did not know what to do. Then one bowman, Tsukushi no Kuni no Miyatsuko, went forth and bent his bow, and aiming dropped from his horse Silla’s most valiant solider. The power of his loosed arrow went through the crosspiece of the saddle and then through his armor. Returning he continued to fire arrows like rain, continuing without remiss, into the surrounding army which broke in retreat. Therefore Yobo and the other generals were able to follow a break in the road and escape. Yeochang praised the Kuni no Miyatsuko for firing into retreat the surrounding army, and granted him the title Kuraji no Kimi. Kuraji is read as ku-ra-ji, 矩羅膩.
At that time, the Sillan generals and others knew the Baekje army was spent, and planned to overthrow its remainder. Then one general said, “We can’t! The Emperor of Yamato, for Gaya, always blames our country. If we plan to overthrow the miyake of Baekje, we will meet with disaster afterward.” Therefore they stopped.
Prince Hye Returns to Baekje
16th year, spring, second month. The King of Baekje’s child Yeochang dispatched prince Hye (Prince Hye was the younger brother of King Wideok) to report, “King Seongmyeong was killed by a traitor.” In the fifteenth year, by the Sillans he was killed. Now we report.” The Emperor head this and was saddened, and dispatched a condolence messenger to go to the prince’s port.
Then, Kose no Omi asked Prince Hye, saying, “Do you want to stay here? Or do you want to return to you own land?”
Prince Hye replied, “By my dependence on the Emperor’s virtue, I want to take revenge on the enemy of my father the king. If he pities me, grant me many soldiers to wipe away the shame and have revenge on the enemy. This is my request, though whether I stay or go, how could I dare to do other than ordered?”
Then suddenly Soga no Omi asked him, “King Syeong was accomplished in the ways of heaven and earth, and his name flowed through the four faces and eight directions. I hoped that for a long time he would protect and stabalize, and govern the countries of the western seas, and serve the Emperor for 1,000 or even 10,000 years. Yet in a mere morning he climbed afar, and like water that does not return, he is at rest in a dark room.. How painfully tragic, how sadly pitiable. In all of mankind, who does not feel this pain? By what mistake did this disaster come now? And now what will you do to govern your country?”
Prince Hye replied to him, “I am a fool, and have no great plans, nor know on what conditions depends disaster or fortune, or the existance or loss of the state.”
Then Soga no Omi said, “In olden days, in the generation of Emperor Ohatsuse [Yuryaku], your country was invaded by Goguryeo, and was in great danger, like a pile of eggs. Then the Emperor ordered the head of the Bureau of Shinto Affairs to respectfully receive the plan of the gods. Using the oracle to speak, the gods said, ‘Summon the god who built the country, and if you send aid to the country under threat of destruction, certainly there will be calm in the state, and the people safe.’ Therefore asking the god and going to aid, the country was pacified. In the beginning the god who made this country came down from heaven when heaven and earth were split apart and when the grass and trees could still speak, and established the state. I hear, your country stopped revering him. Now to repent for past mistakes, repair his palaces, and worship his mysteries, and the country will be bountiful. Don’t forget this.”
Autumn, seventh month. On the fourth day, the Emperor dispatched Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune, Hozumi no Iwayumi no Omi, and others to five districts in Kibi, to make the miyake of Shirai.
Succession by King Wideok
Eighth month. Yeochang of Baekje requested of the myriad ministers, “For my father, I want to become a priest and study Buddhism.”
The myriad ministers and people said, “Now the ruling king wants to become a priest and study Buddhism, and we have received those instructions. Alas, that previous preparations were unestablished, and afterwards there was calamity, whose miss was this? Now the country of Baekje’s people, Goguryeo, and Silla want to attack and overthrow. Since Baekje has become a country, up to this year (it has been like this). Now as to this countries lineage, who should receive the country? You must reason and receive instruction, for by following the words of the elders, how would it have become like this? Repent for the mistakes of the past, but do not labor in going into preisthood. If you want to do this, let some number of the people of the country go into the priesthood.”
Yobo replied, “I approve.” Then the retainers planned, and took counsel together, and 100 people entered the preisthood, and there were made many flags and umbrellas, and ceremonies of virtue were performed, etc etc.
17th year, spring, first month, The Prince of Baekje Hye returned to his country. He was granted many arms and good horses. Also many presents were given to his followers, so they were all grateful. Then he dispatched Abe no Omi, Saeki no Muraji, and Harima no Atai to lead the ship captians of Tsukushi and protect and send him to the country. Also he dispatched Tsukushi no Hi no Kimi (According to the Kudara Honki, Tsukushi no Kimi’s child, younger brother of Hi no Naka no Kimi. Leading the valiant soldiers 1000, they protected and saw him to Mite (Mite is the name of a port). Accordingly they were ordered to protect the port road’s strategic positions.
Autumn, seventh month. On the sixth day, the Emperor dispatched Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune and others to Kibi, to the district of Kojima, to establish the miyake there. Charge of it was given to Kazuraki no Yamada no Atai Mitsuko. Tatsukahi is read as ta-tsu-ka-hi, 陀豆歌[比田].
Winter, tenth month. The Emperor dispatched Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune and others to Yamato country, to the districit of Takechi, to make the miyake of Karahito no Omusa no (By Karahito is meant people of Baekje) and the miyake of Komabito no Omusa, and also in the country of Ki the miyake of Ama was established. By one book, Karahito in each place were made the tabe of the miyake of Omusa, and the people of Goguryeo were made the tabe of the miyake of Omusa. Accordingly the Karahito and Komabito were made Tabe. Therefore there miyake were named.
18th year, spring, third month. On the first day, Prince Yeochang of Baekje succeded to the throne. This is King Wideok.
Worsening of Relations with Silla
21st year, autumn, ninth month. Silla dispatched Miji Giji Nama to present tribute. The banquet granted him surpassed that of custom. Nama was greatly pleased and went home saying, “The messenger who brings tribute is important to the state, and private counsels are light and cheap. The fate of the people depends on the messenger, and when one whose status is low is chosen, it is an evil of the King’s administration, and there is no reason for it. By distinction sons of good families should be chosen as ambassadors, and it cannot be that a person of low, cheap status is a messenger.”
22nd year. Silla dispatched Guryejilgeup Beolgan to present tribute. The Marodo no Tsukasa [person charged with reception of foreign guests] had a banquet and reception that were less than usual, and Beolgan went home sad.
That year, Silla again dispatched Nojeo Daesa, and he presented the tribute from the previous visit. When in the district of Naniwa the system of linging up was set up for foreign countries, the guest entertainers Nukatabe no Muraji, Kazuraki no Atai, and others made him line up below Baekje and then led him in. He went home in great anger, and would not go in the hall, and rode his ship to the foreign guest house Anato, which was being repaired. Then the ambassador asked, “For what guest was this place made?”
The carpenter Kochi no Umakai no Obioshikatsu said on purpose, “It’s a loging for the messenger being sent to the western countries to ask about their rudeness.” The ambassador returned to his country and relayed these words. Therefore Silla built a castle in Ara Hashimure, and made preparations against Japan.
Fall of Gaya
23rd year, spring, first month. Silla attacked the miyake of Gaya. According to one book, in the 21st year, Gaya was destroyed. Here written Gaya is in other words the countries of Kara, Ara, Shiniki, Tara, Sotsuma, Kosa, Shita, Sanhange, Kotsusan, and Ninre, all together ten countries.
Summer, sixth month. The Emperor proclaimed, “Silla is a tiny, ugly tribe in the west that goes against heaven and is without reason. They have rebelled against our benevolence, destroyed our miyake, and caused injury to our people, invading our districts and prefectures. My imperial ancestor Okinagatarashi Hime no Mikoto [Jingu[, who was sage-like and clever, went around the realm, and labored in worry about the masses, nourishing the 10,000 peoples. She pitied Silla in its troubled cicumstances, and saved the heads of the Sillan King which was about to be cut off, and bestowed upon Silla strategic positions, and granted Silla other benefits not deserved. Our Okinagatarashi Hime no Mikoto, to Silla when was she not considerate? What grudge do our people have toward Silla? Silla, by its long spears and strong bows invaded Gaya, and with steel tusks and pointed nails commited atrocities among the living. They have cut open their livers and severed their feet, and yet not tiring of this pleasure, they dried out their bones and burned the corpses, and do not think anything of their own cruelty. The noble families down to the common people of Gaya are butchered with knife and cutting board, cut up like sushi. How is there anyone left in the land who can be called the King’s servant? Who is there that eats grain and drinks water, and hearing this is not greived in heart? Now you, crown prince and Senior Minister, occupying the space of a relative, cry tears of blood and gag on the injustice ,and the gratitude to those working in foreign countries, who would rub themselves from head to heel. Those who receive the virute of previous court administrations will in the future be exchanged for the same role, and those who cannot will drip gall and have their intestines drawn, so together put to death the traitors, wipe away the shame of this outrage on heaven and earth and take revenge against the enemies of the lord and father. When I die I shall resent that the way of the vassal and child has not been realized.”
That month. Someone slandered Umakai no Obito Utayori, saying, “Utayori’s wife O no Omi Sanukui, something is strange about her under-saddle. If you look closely, it is the Empress’.” Utayori was caught and sent to the punishment officer and questioned him extremely. Umakai no Obito Utayori therefore replied back, swearing, “It’s a lie, its not true. If it is true, then surely heavenly disaster will result.” Then because of the hard questioning, he lay down and died.
A few hours after he died, a fire broke out in the palace. Then the punishment officer caught and bound his children Morishi and Nasehi, and was going to throw them into the fire (the punishment of being thrown into fire is probably an an old rule) and laying a curse on them said, “It is not I who throws them in, but the oracle.”After he finished the curse words he wanted to throw them in the fire. Then the mother of Morishi prayed, asking, “If you throw the children into the fire, a greater fire will result. I ask that you attach me to the oracle and make me a shrine-slave. Then according to her request, she was permitted to become a shrine-slave.
Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, Silla dispatched a messenger with tribute. This messenger knew Silla had overthrown Gaya, and was ashamed at his country’s treason against its benefactor, and did not dare ask to return to his country. He stayed without returning to his land, and became along with same as people of this country. Now he is the ancestor of the Sillans of Kawachi country, in the disctrict of Sarara, village of Unono.
Victories and Defeats in the Sillan Campaign
That month, the Great Shogun Ki no Omarao no Sukune leading soldiers departed from Tari. The deputy Shogun Kawabe no Omi Nihe departed from Kosomure. Therefore there wanted to question about the circumstances of Silla’s invasion of Gaya. In the end they arrived in Gaya, and dispatched Komatsumebe no Obito Tomi to Baekje to link their military plans. Tomi stayed at his wife‘s house and dropped the document he had with his bow and arrows in the road. The Sillans then knew the military plan, and led out a great army to seek a surrender and request allegiance.
Ki no Omaro no Sukune took the victory army and returned, and went into Baekje’s camp. Then he ordered the army from within, saying, “Even if you win do not forget defeat, in safety be concerned with danger – this is a good saying of old. Now we are at the border where wolves have intercourse with each other. If we take it lightly, not thinking of difficulties, how will it be? Even in a peaceful world, you cannot separate your sword from your body. The wise man’s preparation of arms has no lack. You should deeply have caution and observe this order.” The soldiers all entrusted their hearts to him and atteneded their duties.
On the other hand, Kawabe no Omi Nihe advanced alone and fought, and where he headed, all were uprooted. Silla then raised a white banner, and threw down their arms and surrendered. Kawabe no Omi Nihe originally did not know the ways of the military, and also raised a white flag, and with no weapon advanced alone. The Sillan general said, “The Shogun Kawabe no Omi now wants to surrender.” Then they advanced their army and faced him, and with all haste attacked and broke through, and many in the vanguard were wounded. Yamato no Kuni no Miyatsuko Tehiko knew that it would be hard to save them, and leaving the army escaped.
The Sillan general took his lance and pursued him to the castle moat, and they fought there. Tehiko therefore ran his noble steed, and crossed over the moat, and just escaped. The Sillan general faced the castle moat and sighed, “Kusunijiri” (this is a Sillan word and the meaning is unclear).
Then, Kawabe no Omi led his army in reatreat, and quickly camped in a field. Then, the soldiers all deceivingly disregarded him and would not follow orders. Then the Sillan general on his own came into the camp, and compeltely captured Kawabe no Omi no Nihe and the women attending them. At that time father and son, husband and wife could not have contact with each other. The Sillan general then asked Kawabe no Omi, “Which do you love more, your life or your wife?”
He answered, “How, for the love of one woman, would I take disaster? Nothing is more important than life,” and permitted him to make her a concubine.
The Sillan general then raped the woman in the open. The woman then came back, and Kawabe no Omi wanted to hit it. The woman was then embarrased, and would not come with him, saying, “In the past you sold my body, now in what dignity can I meet you now?” In the end she would not speak with him. This woman was the daughter of the Omi of Sakamoto, called Princess Umashi.
At that time the captured Tsukinokishi Ikina was daring, and would not surrender. Then the Sillan general loosed his sword and wanted to cut him down, and ordered him take off his pants and stick his bottom toward Japan and scream (scream means like a howl) “Japanese generals, bite my ass!”
But then Ikina screamed, “King of Silla, bite my ass!” and no matter how rough they were on him, he screamed the same as before. Therefore he was killed. His child Ojiko held his father, and he died. Ikina’s words could not be taken from him, and all therefore the generals mourned him. Also his wife Obako was taken, and in sadness sang, “blah blah blah.”
Other people made a chorus, “blah blah blah.”
Imperial Troops Dispatched to Attack Goguryeo
Eighth month, the Emperor dispatched the great Shogun Otomo no Muraji Sadehiko, entrusing him with some tens of thousands of soldiers, to attack Goguryeo.
Sadehiko used Baekje’s plan and attacked Goguryeo. The King jumped over a wall and fled, and Sadehiko riding in victory went into the palace and got rare jewels, a seven-weaved-curtain, and an iron house, and returned. According to one old book, the iron house was in Goguryeo, in the west, atop Takadono, and the weaved curtain was hung in the King of Goguryeo’s bedchamber.
The seven-weaved-curtain was presented to the Emperor. Two suits of armor, two gold decorated swords, three copper cups, two five-color curtains, Omina-hime (hime was part of her name), and her cousain Atako were sent to Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune. The Senior Minister made these two girls his wives, and put them in Karu no Magaridono. (The copper cups were in Changan temple, but it is not clear what country this temple is in). According to one book, in the 11th year, Otomo no Sadehiko no Muraji together with Baekje chased the King of Goguryeo Yanghyang to Hishirutsu.
Winter, 11th month. Silla dispatched a messenger to present gifts and tribute, The messenger knew that everyone blamed his country Silla for overthrowing Gaya, and did not dare to ask to return home for fear of being punished, and did not return to his home country, and became the same as our people. Now in the country of Setsu, in the district of Mishima, in Haniio, those Sillans are his ancestors.
26th year, summer, fifth month. The Goguryeo messenger Indumu Riyapye and others came to Tsukushi. They were set in the country of Yamashiro. Now the Goguryeons from Unehara, Nara, and Yamamura are his descendents.
Death of Soga no Iname
28th year. There were floods in all the countries, and there was a famine, and some people ate each other. They shifted grain from neighboring districts to save them.
30th year, spring, first month. On the first day, the Emperor proclaimed, “In the past tabe were established, but it has been a long time, some tens of years, and now they are left off the registers and avoid their duties. I dispatch Itsu, nephew of 王辰爾, to examine the registers of the tabe of Shirai.
Summer, fourth month. Itsu examined the tax records of the tabe of Shirai, and according to imperial decree established the registers, and organized the tabe. The Emperor was greatly pleased at Itsu’s accomplishment of establishing the registers and granted him the title Shirai no Fubito, ordered him to be Tatsukai, with Mitsuko as his assistant (Mitsuko’s name is seen above).
31st year, spring, third month. On the first day, Senior Minister Soga no Iname no Sukune was buried.
Lost Ambassadors from Goguryeo
Summer, fourth month. On the second day, the Emperor visited Hatsuseshibakaki Palace.
At that time the man of Koshi, Enu no Omi, Moshiro came to the capital and reported, “The Goguryeon messenger met with rough wind and waves and missed his port. He drifted and washed up on the beach. The local magistrate is hiding him. Therefore, I came to make this report.”
The Emperor said, “I received the heavenly endeavor many years ago, but this is the first time the Goguryeons have gotten lost and landed in Koshi. Although he had a suffered drifting and drowning, he is alive. How is this not a sign of our eminent virtue, the spread of civilization, with overflowing pools of grace? By order you should build in the country of Yamashiro, in the district of Sagaraka, a foreign guest house, and warmly receive him.”
That month, the imperial carraige returned from Hatsuseshibakaki Palace. He dispatched Yamato no Aya no Uji no Atai Arako and Kazuraki no Atai Naniwa to welcome and summon the messenger from Goguryeo.
Fifth month. He dispatched Kashiwade no Omi Katabuko (this is read ka-ta-bu-ko, 舸拕部古) to Koshi to feast the Goguryeon messenger. The ambassador knew that the Kashiwade no Omi was the Emperor’s servant, and said to Michi no Ushi “You are not the Emperor, like I had doubted. You are humbly bowing to Kashiwade no Omi, and I know you are just one of the people. Previously I was decieved, and you took the tribute and wore it. Hurry up and return it, without any words.” The Kashiwade no Omi heard this, and had servants deeply search for the tribute, and returned it, then went back to the capital and reported.
Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, the messenger from Goguryeo arrived in Omi. That month, the Emperor dispatched Kose no Omi Saru and Kishi no Akahato to depart from Naniwa port and lead ships to Sasanayama, and with a decorative boat, to go meet him at a mountain in north Omi. They put him in Yamashiro country, in the foreign guest house of Komahi, and dispatched Yamato no Aya no Saka no Ue no Atai Komaro and Nishikori no Obito Oishi to guard him. The messenger from Goguryeo was also feasted at the foreign guest house of Sagaraka.
32nd year, spring, third month. On the fifth day, the Emperor dispatched Sakata no Mimiko no Iratsukimi to Silla to ask about the overthrow of Gaya. That month, Goguryeo’s tribute and correspondence could not be delivered, and several days passed, so they divined a good day and waited for it.
Death of the Emperor
Summer, fourth month. On the 15th day, the Emperor fell ill. The crown prince was not around, so they used station-horses to summon him, and sent him into the bedchamber. Taking his hand the Emperor proclaimed, “I am sick, and things after are left to you. You must attack Silla, and resore Gaya, like a wife to us as in olden days, only thus can I die without regret.” That month, the Emperor died in his bedchamber. He was quite old.
Fifth month. The temporary burial was held in Kawachi, Furuichi.
Autumn, eighth month. On the first day, Silla dispatched as condolence messenger Mijil Jasilso, and he did rites at the temporary burial. That month, Mijil Jasilso and the others returned to their countries.
Ninth month. The Emperor was buried in Hinokuma no Sakai Tomb.