Emperor Tenji Rules the Court, Sends Aid to Baekje
Emperor Tenji was the oldest son of Emperor Jomei. His mother was Empress Kogyoku. In the fourth year of Empress Kogyoku, the Emperor [Tenji] refused the throne on behalf of Emperor Kotoku and became the crown prince. In the fifth year, tenth month of Emperor Kotoku, the Emperor [Kotoku] died.
The next year, Sumemioya no Mikoto [Empress Kogyoku] became Empress [again as Empess Saimei]. In the seventh year, seventh month of her reign, she died. The crown prince put on asamo clothing and ruled without officially becoming the Emperor.
The next month, General So and Keihitsukariki, Prince of Totsuketsu, went to the lower castle in Goguryeo both by sea and by land. The crown prince [Tenji] moved to Nagatsu Palace and gradually administrated the overseas military.
Eighth month. He dispatched the shoguns of the vanguard Lower Daike Azumi Hirabu no Muraji and Lower Shoke Kawabe no Momoe no Omi and those of the rearguard Lower Daike Ahe Hiketa no Hirabu no Omi, Upper Daisen Mononobe no Muraji Kuma, and Upper Daisen Mori no Kimi Oiwa to rescue Baekje, and sent weapons and provisions. One book says, after this he separately sent Lower Daisen Sai no Muraji Ajimasa and Lower Shosen Hada no Miyatsuko Takutsu to protect Baekje.
Ninth month. The crown prince granted Prince Pungjang of Baekje the cap rank of Orimono at Nagatsu Palace and made the younger sister of O no Omi Komoshiki become his [Pungjang's] wife.
Then he dispatched Lower Daisen Sai no Muraji Ajimasa and Lower Shosen Hada no Miyatsuko Takutsu leading over 500 soldiers to protect him and sent him back to his homeland. When Pungjang entered the country, Boksin came to meet him and entrusted him with all the matters of the country’s administration.
12th month. Goguryeo said, “In this 12th month, in Goguryeo, it was extremely cold and the river froze over. Therefore the Tang army, with cloud chariots and battering engines, sounding drums and gongs, invaded. Goguryeo’s soldiers were brave and valiant, and took two of the Tang bases, and only two remained. Then they prepared at night to take them, and the Tang soldiers kneeled and cried. The sharpness of our power was extinguished, and we were not able to attack. Is there any a more navel-biting shame than this?” The monk Dohyeon said, “Kim Chunchu’s [Muyeol of Silla] intent was in truth to attack Goguryeo, but first to take Baekje. Baekje in recent years was invaded and endured great suffering because of it.”
That year, the governor of Harima Kishita no Omi Maro presented the crown prince with a jeweled sword, saying, “The people of the disctrict of Sayo found it inside a hole in a millet field.” Also, the shoguns of the rescue army sent by Yamato docked in Baekje at Kahari beach and made a fire. The ashes of the fire changed into a hole, and made a faint sound like whistling arrowheads. Someone said, “It is a sign that Goguryeo and Baekje are going to be destroyed.”
Baekje Forces Move to Hesashi
First year, spring, first month. On the 27th day, Sahe Gwisil Boksin of Baekje was given 100,000 arrows, 500 kin of thread, 1,000 kin of silk, 1,000 hashi of cloth, 1,000 sheets of dried leather, and 3,000 seeds.
Third month. On the fourth day, the men of Tang and Silla attacked Goguryeo. Goguryeo requested aid from our state. The shoguns were dispatched and took Soru Castle. For this reason, the men of Tang could not invade the southern border of Goguryeo, and Silla could not take the bases in the west.
Summer, fourth month. A rat gave birth inside a horse’s tail. The monk Dohyeon divined this and said, “In the northern countries the people are going to make fiefs of the southern countries. Goguryeo will be taken and attached to Yamato.”
Fifth month. Great shogun greater Kinchu Azumi no Hirabu no Muraji and others led 170 ships sending Pungjang back to the country of Baekje and stating an imperial order that Pungjang succeed to the throne. Also golden book was given to Boksin and he was patted on the back and given rank and presents. At that time, Pungjang and Boksin humbly received the imperial order, and all the people watching cried.
Sixth month. On the 28th day, Baekje dispatched Tatsusotsu Manji and others with tribute and gifts.
Winter, 12th month. On the first day, the King of Baekje Pungjang and his minister Sahe Boksin held conference with Sai no Muraji (name absent) and Echi no Takutsu, saying, “The place we are now, Tsune, is far from rice fields, and the land is stony, and it is not land for farming or business, it is a place for countering attack. If we stay here for a long time, the people will have famine. Now we should move to Hesashi. Hesashi, in the northwest has the waters of the Korentankei river, and to the southeast it is protected by a base of deep mud and a giant embankment. Around it are rice fields, and the rain falls into canals, and its bounty is the richest in all the three countries of Korea. There are resources for food and clothes, and it is good district according to the two principles. While it is said to be flatland, why can we not move there?”
Then, only Echi no Takutsu said, “The distance between Hesashi and our enemies is close enough to be covered in one night. If we are attacked, we will regret it. We can worry about the famine of the people afterwards, the loss of the state is first. Now the enemy does not come, and it is because Tsune is set in steep mountains covering it in defense, and the mountains are high and the valleys narrow, easily defended and difficult to attack. If this was flatland, how could we have fortified it and not been moved up to now?” However his warning was not heeded, and they moved to Hesashi. That year, for rescuing Baekje, the the soldier’s armor was repaired, ships were prepared, and provisions were set aside. The year was 662.
Second year, spring, second month. On the second day, Baekje dispatched Tatsusotsu Gimsu and others to present tribute. The Sillans burned four castles in Baekje’s southern district and took Antoku and other strategic locations. Then, as Hesashi was near the rebels, they could not exert their power. They returned to Tsune, like Takutsu had planned. That month, Sahe Boksin sent Xu Shouyan and other prisoners of war from Tang.
Death of Boksin and Battle of Baekgang
Third month. They vanguard shoguns Kamitsukeno no Kimi Wakako and Hashihito no Muraji Ofuta, central shoguns Kose no Kansaki no Omi Osa and Miwa no Kimi Nemaro, and rearguard shoguns Ahe no Hiketa no Omi Hirabu and Oyake no Omi Kamatsuka were sent at the head of 27,000 men to attack Silla.
Summer, fifth month. On the first day, Inu no Kami no Kimi (name absent) rode swiftly and told the soldiers in Goguryeo what was going on then returned. He saw them with Kuge at Shakusash. Kuge told of the punishment of Boksin.
Sixth month. Vanguard shogun Kamitsukeno no Kimi Wakako took Silla’s twin castles in Sabikinue. The Baekje King Pungjang suspected Boksin of treachery, and so made holes in the palms of his hands and bound him with a leather cord. Then he asked the myriad ministers, “Boksin’s crime is this. Shall we behead him or no?”
Then Tatsusotsu Deok Jipdeuk said, “This evil betrayer canoot be released.”
Then Boksin spat on Jipdeuk and said, “You rotten dog.” The king ordered a strong man to behead Boksin and pickle his neck.
Autumn, eighth month. On the 13th day, Silla heard that the King of Baekje had beheaded his own good general and planned to directly enter the country and first take Tsune. Then Baekje found out the plan of the rebels and asked of the generals, saying, “Now we hear the rescue army of Iohara no Kimi Omi, leading over 10,000 strong men, has crossed the sea and landed. We want the shoguns to make a new plan. We will on our own go to Hakusuki to await them with a banquet.”
On the 17th day, the rebels arrived in Tsune and surrounded the King’s castle. The Tang Shogun leading 170 ships made his camp at the Hakusuki river. On the 27th day, the Yamato captain first arrived and fought with the Tang captain. Yamato could not win and retreated, and Tang fortified the encampment and protected it.
On the 28th day, the generals of Yamato and the King of Baekje, without observing the nature of things said to each other, “If we attack first, afterwards they will retreat on their own.” Then leading the unorganized soldiers of Yamato’s middle army, they advanced and attacked the Tang army at their fortified encampment. The Tang then came with ships on the left and right and surrounded them, and they fought. After a short time, the army had lost. Many went into the water and died. The boat rudders could also not be turned around. Echi no Takutsu raised his head to heaven and swore, then clenched his teeth, killed some tens of people, then died in the battle. At that time, the King of Baekje Pungjang and some number of people rode boats and fled to Goguryeo.
Ninth month. On the seventh day, Baekje’s castle at Tsune was first taken by the Tang. At that time, the people in the country said to each other, “Tsune has fallen, and nothing can be done. The name of Baekje has ended todsay. As for the hill tombs, how can we go to them again. However we should go to Teresashi and meet the generals of Yamato, and plan with them what needs to be done.” Also the wife and children of the King who were in Shinbukugi-sashi, resolved to leave the country. On the 11th day, they left from Mute. On the 13th day, they arrived in Tere. On the 24th day, the Yamato captains and Sahe Yeo Jasin, Tatsusotsu Mokso Gwija, Gokna Jinsu, and Eokye Bokyu together with their countrymen went to Tere Sasashi. The next day, they departed by ship for Yamato.
Amendment of Cap Ranks, Defenses Against the West
Third year, spring, second month. On the ninth day, the Emperor [crown prince] ordered Hitsugi no Miko [Oama] to increase and amend the cap rankings as well as the konokami, kakibe, yakabe, and other things. This cap system had 26 ranks. They were Greater and Lesser Shiki, Greater and Lesser Bu, Greater and Lesser Shiki (purple, Upper, Middle, and Lower Daikin, Upper, Lower, and Midde Shokin, Upper, Middle, and Lower Daisen, Upper, Middle, and Lower Shosen, Upper, Middle, and Lower Daiotsu, Upper, Middle, and Lower Shootsu, Daikon, and Shokon; 26 ranks in all.
The previous Ke rank was made Kin, and from Kin to Otsu 10 ranks were added. Also they added and amended the elementary rank into the two ranks of Daikon and Shokon. These points were different, but the others were all as they were in the past. The leaders of the great clans were given large swords, and of the small clans were given small swords, and the tomo no miyatsuko and other leaders given shields and bows and arrows. Also they established the kakibe and yakabe.
Third month. The King of Baekje Seongwang lived in Naniwa. North of the capital a star fell. That spring, there was an earthquake.
Summer, fifth month. On the 17th day, the general who conquered Baekje, Liu Jinyuan, dispatched Chosandaibu Guo Shengcong with a manuscript for the Emperor, a box, and other objects to present. That month, Senior Minister Daishiki Soga no Muraji was buried. One book says that the Senior Minister’s burial was noted in the fifth month.
Sixth month. Shiki no Sumemioya no Mikoto died.
Winter, tenth month. An imperial order saying that Guo Shengcong and the others were to be sent was issued. That day, Interior Minister Nakatomi dispatched the monk Chijo with presents for Guo Shengcong. On the fourth day, A feast was held for Guo Shengcong and the others. That month, the King of Goguryeo Kokon died in that country. He left a will to his children saying, “You siblings, be at peace with each other, like fish and water, and do not fight over the succession. If you do not do this, neighboring countries will certainly laugh at you.”
12th month. On the 12th day, Guo Shengcong and the others returned to their country. That month, in the country of Omi it was said, “Shinoda no Fubito Mu from the distrcit of Sakata suddenly saw a rice grain grow out of the bucket of water for his pig. He took it and day after day was properous. Iwaki no Suguri O from the district of Kurumoto had a rice grain grow out and became an ear in just one night at the edge of the bed for his new wife. After one day it was hanging in ripeness. The next evening, there was only one ear. The new wife went out into the garden and two kagi fell from heaven right in front of her. The wife took them and gave them to O, and began to O proper.” That year, in TsushimaTsushima, Iki, and Tsukushi, they set up guards and signal lamps. Also in Tsukushi, they made they made a great dyke and stored up water, and it was called Mizuki, the water castle.
Death of Empress Hashihito, Castles Built in Tsukushi
Fourth year, spring, second month. On the 25th day, Empress Hashihito died. That month, they inspected the ranks of the Baekje bureaucrats. Because of Sahe Gwisil Boksin's victories, they bestowed on Gwisil Jipsa the rank of Lower Shokin. His orginial rank was Tatsusotsu. Also they made over 400 men and women from Baekje live in the country of Omi, in the district of Kansaki.
Third month. On the first day, 330 men were made to enter the priesthood for Empress Hashihito. That month, fields were provided to the people from Baekje who had settled in the distrcit of Kansaki.
Autumn, eighth month. Tatsusotsu Dalbon Chuncho was dispatched to make a castle in the country of Nagato, and Tatsusotsu Eokye Bokyu and Tatsusotsu Sabi Bokbu were sent to Tsukushi to make the two castles of Ono and Ki. Also, Jeju-do sent a messenger who came to court.
Ninth month. On the 23rd day, Tang dispatched Chosandaibu Kishu no Shiba Shochukokuri Liu Degao and others. The others were Ujueirosho Shochukokuri Kudara no Negun and Chosandaibu Chukoku Guo Shengcong. All together there were 254 people. In the seventh month, on the 28th day, they arrived in Tsushima. In the ninth month, on the 20th day, they arrived in Tsukushi. On the 22nd day they presented a box for the Emperor.
Winter, tenth month. On the 11th day, there was a great inspection of soldiers in Uji.
11th month. On the 13th day, there was a feast for Liu Degao and the others.
12th month. On the 14th day, Liu Degao and the others were given presents. That month, Liu Degao and the others returned to their country. That year, Shokin Mori no Kimi Oiwa and others were sent to Tang, etc etc. The others were Shosen Sakaibe no Muraji Iwatsumi, Daiotsu Kishi no Kimi, and Kishi no Harima. Probably they went to see off the messengers from Tang.
Fifth year, spring, first month. On the 11th day, Goguryeo dispatched Zenhou Neungru to present tribute. That day, Jeju-do dispatched their prince Goyeo and others to present tribute.
Third month. The crown prince on his own went to the house of Saeki no Komaro no Muraji and asked about his sickness, and crying praised him for his acheivements in following the prince from the beginning.
Summer, sixth month. On the fourth day, Zenhou Neungru and the others from Goguryeo went home.
Autumn, seventh month. There was flooding. This autumn, the rice tax and the cho tax were exempted.
Winter, tenth month. On the 26th day, Goguryeo dispatched the minister Otsuso Eomchu and others to present tribute. The ambassador was Otsuso Eomchu and the deputy ambassadors were Tatsuso Dun and second rank Genmu Yakgwang. That winter, the rats of the capital all moved to Omi. Over 2,000 men and women from Baekje were made to live in the country of Azuma. They were all provided with food from the government from the year 633 for three years regardless of whether they were monks, nuns, or commoners. The monk Yamato no Aya Chiyu gave a compass to the crown prince.
Funeral of Empress Kogyoku
Sixth year, spring, second month. On the 27th day, Empress Kogyoku / Saimei and Imperial Princess Hashihito were buried together at Ochi no Oka no Ue tomb. Also on this day Imperial Princess Ota was buried in a mound in front of the tomb.
Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla all mourned along the imperial highway. The crown prince said to the myriad ministers, “I attended on the orders of the Empress Dowager, and for the sadness of the 10,000 people therefore I cannot commence the construction of a new tomb. Somehow I want to warn future generations of this.”
Third month. On the 19th day, the capital was moved to Omi. At that time, the people of the realm did not want the capital to be moved, and there was much recitation and repeating of songs. Day and night there were many fires.
Sixth month. The district of Kadono sent the Emperor a white swallow.
Autumn, seventh month. On the 11th day, Jeju-do sent Sahe Yeonma to the court with tribute.
Eighth month. The crown prince visited the capital of Yamato.
Winter, tenth month. Daikyo Namsaeng from Goguryeo went out of the castle and went around the country. Then within the castle his two younger brothers, following the evil words of the nearby retainers, would not let him back in. Therefore Namsaeng went to Tang and plotted to overthrow the country.
11th month. On the ninth day, the general who conquered Baekje, Liu Jinyuan, sent Yushin no Totokufu Yusen no Ken no Re Josukokuri Shiba Hoso, and Lower Daisen Sakaibe no Muraji Iwatsumi was sent to Totokufu in Tsukushi. On the 13th day, Shiba Hoso and the others went home. Lower Shosen Iki no Muraji Hakatoko and Lower Daiotsu Kasa no Omi Moroiwa were the messengers who saw them off. That month, Takayasu castle was built in the country of Yamato, Yashima castle in the district of Yamada in Sanuki, and Kanata castle in Tsushima.
Intercalary 11th month. On the 11th day, 14 bolts of brocade, 19 bolts of patterned silk, 24 bolts of scarlet, 24 hashi of dark blue cloth, 58 hashi of peach-dyed cloth, 26 axes, 64 knives, and 62 sabres were given to Yeonma.
Accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne
Seventh year, spring, first month. The Crown Prince officially became the Emperor. One book says in the sixth year, 667, in the third month, he became Emperor. On the seventh day, there was a banquet for the myriad ministers in the palace. On the 23rd day, the send-off messenger Hakatoko made his report.
Second month. On the 23rd day, Imperial Prince Furuhito no Oe’s daughter Princess Yamato was made Empress, and also four consorts were established.
The first consort was the daughter of Senior Minister Soga no Yamada no Ishikawa no Maro, called Ochi no Iratsume. One book says her name was Minotsuko no Iratsume. She gave birth to one boy and two girls. The first was called Imperial Princess Ota. The second was called Imperial Princess Uno. Her rule extended over all the realm, and she lived first in Asuka at Kiyomihara palace, and afterwards moved to Fujiwara palace. The thrid was called Imperial Prince Takeru. He was mute and could not speak.
One book says, Ochi no Iratsume had one boy and two girls. The first was called Imperial Prince Takeru, the second was called Imperial Princess Ota, and the third was called Imperial Princess Uno. One other book says the dauther of Senior Minister Soga no Yamada no Maro was called Chinu no Iratsume, and that she gave birth to Imperial Princess Ota and Imperial Princess Sarara.
The next consort was the younger sister of Ochi no Iratsume, called Mei no Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Minabe and Imperial Princess Ahe. Imperial Princess Ahe’s rule extened through the realm, and she first ruled from Fujiwara Palace but later moved the captial to Nara. One book says that the name of Mei no Iratsume was Sakurai no Iratsume.
The next consort was the daughter of prominent minister Ahe no Kurahashimaro, called Tachibana no Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Asuka and Imperial Princess Niitabe.
The next consort was the daughter of prominent minister Soga no Akae, called Hitachi no Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Yamabe.
Also, there were four daughters from regional families who gave birth to boys and girls. One was the daughter of Oshinumi no Miyatsuko Otatsu, called Shikobuko no Iratsume. She gave birth to one boy and two girls. The first was called Imperial Princess Oe. The second was called Impreial Princess Kawashima. The third was called Imperial Princess Izumi. Also there was the daughter of Kurakuma no Obito Tokomaro, called Kurohime no Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Moitori. Also there was Koshi no Michi no Kimi Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Shiki. Lastly there was the daughter of Iga no Uneme, called Yakakono Iratsume. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Iga. His later name was Imperial Prince Otomo.
Fall of Goguryeo
Summer, fourth month. On the sixth day, Baekje dispatched Matsushio and others with tax. On the 16th day, Matsushio and the others went home.
Fifth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor went hunting in Kamafuno. At that time Imperial Prince Hitsugi the other princes, the interior minister, and the myriad ministers all followed him.
Sixth month. Prince Ise and his younger brother died on consecutive days. Their rank is unclear.
Autumn, seventh month. Goguryeo messengers followed the road from Koshi to present tribute. Because of wind and high waves, they could not go home. Prince Kurukuma was appointed ruler of Tsukushi. At this time, in the country of Omi there was military training, and also many pastures were established and horses were released in them. Also the country of Koshi presented charcoal and oil to the Emperor. Also below a tower at the beach, lots of fish covered the surface of the water. Also the Emperor had a feast for the Emishi. Also he ordered the servants to throw parties at various places. At that time, people said, “The Emperor’s life is coming to an end.”
Autumn, ninth month. On the 12th day, Silla dispatched Satoku Kyusan Kim Tougon to present tribute. On the 26th day, Interior Minister Nakatomi sent as messengers the monks Hoben and Jinhitsu and gave the Sillan ambassador Daikaku Kan Yushi one boat and to take Togon back. On the 29th day, Fuse no Omi Mimimaro was made messenger to give the Sillan king one boat with which to send tribute, and Togon was sent with it.
Winter, tenth month. The Grand General of Tang Eiko overthrew Goguryeo. When King Chumu of Goguryeo first founded the country, he wanted it is be administrated for 1,000 years. But his mother said, “If you administrate the country well, then it is possible. But if given this start, it is not. However it will be an administration of 700 years.” Now when this country was overthrown, it was just at the end of 700 years.
11th month. On the first day, the Emperor gave the King of Silla was given 50 bolts of silk, and 500 kin of something, and 100 ashikawa, and he also gave presents to Tougon and the others, each in different amounts. On the fifth day, the Emperor dispatched Lower Daisen Michimori no Omi Maro and Kishi no Oshibi to Silla. That day, Tougon and the others returned home.
That year, the monk Doko stole the sword of Kusanagi no Tsurugi and escaped to Silla. However on the way there was wind and rain, and he lost his way and returned.
Death of Fujiwara Kamatari
Eighth year, spring, first month. On the ninth day, Soga no Akae no Omi was appointed ruler of Tsukushi.
Third month. On the 11th day, Jeju-do dispatched its prince Kumagi with tribute. On the 18th day, the Emperor gave the Jeju-do prince seeds from the five grains. That day, Prince Kumagi returned home.
Summer, fifth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor went hunting at the moor of Yamashina. Then Imperial Prince Hitsugi, Interior Minister Fujiwara, and the myriad ministers all followed him.
Autumn, eighth month. On the third day, the Emperor climbed the peak of Takayasu and consulted about wanting to repair the [Takayasu] castle. However, the people were exhausted, so he stopped the labor. At that time people sighed, “This is really benevolence and virtue, oh how wide it is.” Etc etc. That autumn, thunder struck at Interior Minister Fujiwara’s house.
Ninth month. On the 11th day, Silla dispatched someone with tribute.
Winter, tenth month. On the tenth day, the Emperor went to the house of Interior Minister Fujiwara and himself asked about his illness, but was saddened at how thin his face had become. Then the Emperor proclaimed to him, “Heaven’s way saves the benevolent, how can this be a lie? That those who stack up good works have excess joy, how can there be no sign? If there is anything you need, say so and I will hear it.”
Then he replied, “I am no genius, what can I say? However when I am buried, I ask that it be a simple affair. For one who was no use to a military country in life, how can they dare to be a burden after death?” Etc etc.
At that time wise men heard this and sighed, “This one saying could even be compared with the good words of sages past. When Daiju Shogun refused reward, were his words not similar?” On the 15th day, the Emperor dispatched Imperial Prince Hitsugi to the house of Interior Minister Fujiwara to bestow upon him the cap rank of Daishiki and the rank of Senior Minister. Then he gave him the clan-title Fujiwara. From this time forth, he is called Senior Minister Fujiwara no Uchitsu. On the 16th day, Senior Minister Fujiwara no Uchitsu died.
The Nippon Seiki says, “Senior Minister Uchitsu lived thorugh 50 springs and autumns until he died at his house. They moved him south of the mountain for his temporary burial. Why did heaven have no pity and not leave this old man. It is a tragedy. His headstone says ‘He died after 56 springs and autumns.’”
On the 19th day, the Emperor visited the house of Senior Minister Fujiwara no Uchitsu. He ordered Upper Daikin Soga no Akae no Omi to read out the words of the imperial blessing, and gave him a golden koro.
12th month. There was a fire in the treasury. That winter, they repaired Takayasu castle and collected the rice tax from the central countries. At that time, there was also a fire in the Ikaruga Temple. That year, the Emperor dispatched Middle Shokin Kochi no Atai Kujira and others to Tang. Also, Sahe Yeo Jasin and Sahe Gwisil Jipsa, with over 700 men and women, moved to dwell in the country of Omi in the district of Gamo. Also, Tang dispatched Guo Shengcong with over 2,000 people in his retinue.
Creation of Family Registers
Ninth year, spring, first month. On the seventh day, the Emperor proclaimed to the ministers that they would have a giant target shooting contest in the palace grounds. On the 14th day, there was a pronouncement about the rules and rites of the court and how to properly meet or depart from people met on the road. Also lies and rumors were prohibited.
Second month. Family registers were made, theives and wanderers were captured. At that time, the Emperor visited the moor of Hisa in some district to look for land to build a palace. Also he had Takayasu castle repaired and stored up grain and salt, and had one castle built in Nagato and two in Tsukushi.
Third month. On the ninth day, near Yama no Mii, a seat for the gods was made and offerings were made to the gods. Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji did the blessing.
Summer, fourth month. On the 30th day past midnight, there was a fire in Horyu Temple. Not one building remained. There was heavy rain and thunder.
Fifth month. A song went, “blah blah blah.”
Sixth month. In one village someone caught a turtle. On it’s back was written the character for monkey, and its top was yellow and its bottom black, and it was about six inches long.
Autumn, ninth month. On the first day, the Emperor sent Azumi no Muraji Tsuratari to Silla.
That year, they built a mizuusu and made iron.
Implementation of the New Laws
Tenth year, spring, first month. On the second day, Upper Daikin Soga no Akae no Omi and Lower Daikin Kose no Hito no Omi went before the hall and read words of celebration for the new year. On the fifth day, Upper Daikin Nakatomi Kane no Muraji was ordered to say words to the gods. That day, Imperial Prince Otomo was appointed Oki Matsuigoto no Omaetsukimi. Soga no Akae no Omi was made Minister of the Left, and Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji was made Minister of the Right. Soga no Hatayasu no Omi, Kose no Hito no Omi, and Ki no Ushi no Omi were made gyoshitaifu. Goshi is probably now what is called dainagon.
On the sixth day, Imperial Prince Hitsugi read the Emperor’s orders (in one book, it was Imperial Prince Otomo) that enacted the system of cap ranks and laws. The laws and names of the headcaps are written in a new ritsuryo. There was a great amnesty in the realm. On the ninth day, Goguryeo dispatched Joho Daiso Karu to submit tribute. On the 13th day, the general who conquered Baekje Liu Jinyuan sent Ri Shushin with documents for the Emperor.
That month, Lower Daikin rank was bestowed on Sahe Yeo Jasin and Sataku Joumyou (the assistant at the Nori no Tsukasa). The rank of Lower Shokin was bestowed on Gwisil Jipsa (head of the Fumi no Tsukasa). Lower Daisen was bestowed on Tatsusotsu Kokuna Shinshu, Mokusu Kishi, Eokye Bokyu, Dalbon Chuncho, the four of whom were trained in military strategy, and also Honnichi Hishi Sanhara Konra Konsu and Gwisil Jipsin who were both experts in medicines. Upper Shosen was bestowed on Tatsusotsu Tokuchoujou and Kichidaijou, experts in medicine, Kosotsumo, who could explain the five classics, and Rokufukumu, who was trained in the ways of yin and yang. Lower Shosen was bestowed on over 50 other Tatsusotsu. A song went, “blah blah blah.”
Second month. On the 23rd day, Baekje dispatched Daiku Yougen to present tribute.
Third month. On the third day, Kifumi no Miyatsuko Honjitsu presented the Emperor with a mizu-hakari. On the 17th day, the country of Hitachi tributed Nakatomibe no Wakugo. His height was one foot six inches, and since he was born in the year of Hi no Etatsu 16 years had passed.
Summer, fourth month. On the 25th day, they placed the rokoku on a new stand, and made it for the strike a drum and a bell to show the time. It was the first time they used this rokoku. This rokoku was made by the Emperor himself when he was still the crown prince, etc etc. That month in Tsukushi they said, “An eight-legged deer was born but is already dead.”
Fifth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor went to the western small hall. The crown prince and the myriad ministers waited on him and had a banquet, and they did the tamai dance twice.
Sixth month. On the fourth day, the military requests of Baekje were pronounced by the messenger Mitamura. On the 15th day, Baekje dispatched Gei Shinshi with tribute. That month, Prince Kurukuma was made something of Tsukushi. Silla dispatched messengers with tribute. Seperately they sent one water buffalo and one mountain bird as tribute.
Autumn, seventh month. On the 11th day, Ri Shushin and other men from Tang, along with the messengers from Baekje, went home.
Eighth month. On the third day, Joho Daiso Karu returned home from Goguryeo. On the 18th day, the Emperor had a feast for the Emishi.
Death of the Emperor
Ninth month. The Emperor got sick (one book says it was the eighth month when he got sick).
Winter, tenth month. On the seventh day, Silla dispatched Kim Manmul and othjers with tribute. On the eighth day, 100 Buddhist statues were set up inside the palace. That month, the Emperor dispatched messengers to Hoko temple with kesa, kogane no hachi, ivory, jinko, sendanko, and other rare treausres to offer them to the Buddha. On the 17th day, the Emperor’s sickness got worse. He ordered Moke no Kimi [the crown prince] be summoned to his bedroom and proclaimed to him, “I am sick, and the things to come are up to you.” Etc etc.
Then, he bowed but refused on account of the sickenss to receive the order, saying, “I ask that the things of the realm be left to the Empress, and order Prince Otomo to state the edicts and handle administration. I wish to enter the priesthood for the Emperor.” The Emperor allowed this. Then he got up and bowed, and exited to the south of the hall Buddhist altar and sat cross-legged on the floor, cut off his hair, and became a monk. Then, the Emperor dispatched Sukita no Oiwa and sent him kesa. On the 19th day, Moke no Kimi met the Emperor, and asked that he be allowed to study Buddhism in Yoshino. The Emperor allowed it. Moke no Kimi then went to Yoshino. The Senior Minister and others attended on his departure, and went as far as Uji before returning.
11th month. On the tenth day, the governor of Tsushima dispatched a messenger to the viceroy of Tsukushi, saying, “This month, on the second day, the monk Douku, Tsukushi no Kimi Satsuyama, Karashima no Suguri Saba, and Nunoshi no Obito Iwa, four people from Tang, came saying, “The Tang messenger Guo Shengcong leading 600 people, as well as the messengers sent to see him off Sataku Sontou leading 1,400 people, altogether 2,000 people riding 47 boats, are all docked at Hichishima. They say to each other, ‘Now our people and boats are many. If we suddenly show up, we fear we will frighten the guards and they will shoot at us.” So Douku and the others were sent ahead to hear the opinion of the court.’”
On the 23rd day, Imperial Prince Otomo was in the palace at the western hall in front of the Orimono buddha statue, and the minister of the left Soga no Akae no Omi, the minister of the right Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji, Soga no Hatayasu no Omi, Kose no Hito no Omi, and Ki no Ushi no Omi were attending on him. Then Imperial Prince Otomo took incense in his hand and stood them up and swore, “Six people with the same heart, attend on the Emperor’s proclomations. If any defy them, they will certainly receive heavenly punishment.” Etc etc.
Then, the minister of the left Soga no Akae no Omi and the others took incense in their hands andd accordinly stood it up, and crying blood they swore, “We five follow the hall, and attend the Emperor’s proclomations. If any defy them, the four heavenly gods will strike them. The gods of heaven and earth will plan punishment. 33 heavens, give us proof of this thing. The descendents will be extinguished, and the house will die out.” On the 24th day, there was a fire in Omi palace. According to the Ministry of the Treasury, fire broke out from the third granary. On the 29th day, the five Omi attended on Imperial Prince Otomo and allied before the Emperor. That day, the Emperor gave the King of Silla 50 bolts of silk, 50 bolts of rough silk, 1,000 kin of cotton, and 100 something of oshikawa.
12th month. On the third day, the Emperor died in Omi Palace. On the 11th day, the temporary burial was held at the new palace. A popular song went, “blah blah blah.” On the 17th day, the Sillan tribute messenger Kim Manmul returned to his country. That year, in Sanuki, in the district of Yamada, there was a chick with four legs at someone’s house. Also, the eight pots of the Oi no Tsukasa growled. Sometimes it was just one, and sometimes it was all eight together.