Scroll 29 - Emperor Temmu (2)

Accession and Children


Second year, spring, first month. On the seventh day, a drinking party was held for the myriad ministers.
Second month. On the 27th day, the Emperor ordered the bureaucrats to prepare a dais, and he succeeded to the throne at Asuka Kiyomihara Palace. His legal wife was made Empress. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto
Previously, the older sister of the Empress, called Imperial Prince Ota, was made consort. She gave birth to Imperial Princess Oku and Imperial Prince Otsu. His next consort was Imperial Princess Oe. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Naga and Imperial Prince Yuge. His next consort was Imperial Princess Niitabe. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Toneri.
Also, Lady Hikame no Iratsume, daughter of Senior Minister Fujiwara, gave birth to Imperial Prince Tajima. Next, Lady Ioe no Iratsume, the younger sister of Hikame no Iratsume, gave birth to Imperial Prince Niitabe. Next, Lady Onu no Itatsume, daughter of Senior Minister Soga no Akae, gave birth to one boy and two girls. The first was called Imperial Prince Hozumi, the second Imperial Princess Ki, and the third Imperial Princess Takata.
In the past, the Emperor had taken as consort Princess Nukata, the daughter of Prince Kagami, and she gave birth to Imperial Princess Tochi. Also, he took the as consort Amako no Iratsume, daughter of Munakata no Kimi Tokuzen. She gave birth to Imperial Prince Takechi no Mikoto. Next, Kajihime no Iratsume, daughter of Shishihito no Omi Omaro, gave birth to two boys and two girls. The first was Imperial Prince Osakabe. The second was Imperial Prince Shiki. The third was Imperial Princess Hatsusebe. The fourth was Imperial Princess Taki.
On the 29th day, the Emperor recognized achievements and bestowed various cap ranks.
Third month. On the 17th day, the governor of lower Kibi caught a white pheasant in the district of Kameshi and presented it to the Emperor. This district was exempted from forced labor and there was a great amnesty in the realm. That month, scribes were assembled and began to compile Buddhist scripture at Kawahara Temple.
Summer, fourth month. On the 14th day, the Emperor wanted to dispatch Imperial Princess Oku to attend to the palace of the great goddess Amaterasu, so she was ordered to live in Hatsuse no Ituski palace. This was begin purification of her so she could gradually draw nearer to the place of the god.
Fifth month. On the first day, the Emperor made a proclamation to all the ministers, omi, muraji and tomo no miyatsuko, saying, “Those who want to enter the bureaucracy for the first time will first be ordered to serve under the senior servants. Afterward they will be selected on the basis of ability for the work that suits them. Also women, without inquiring whether they have a husband or wife, or whether they are old or young, they are permitted to work. This will be the system of careful selection for the bureaucrats.” On the 29th day, Upper Daikin Sakamoto Takara no Omi died. For his labors during the Jinshin War, he was awarded the rank of Shoshi.
Intercalary sixth month. On the sixth day, Lower Daikin and Satsuku of Baekje, Somyoeng, died. This man was bright and intrepid, and excelled in talent for his time. The Emperor was surprised at his death and granted him the rank Tonoshoshi, and also granted him the rank of Sahe from his home country. On the eighth day, Jeju-do dispatched Princes Gumaye, Dona, and Uma to the court with tribute. On the 15th day, Silla dispatched Kanasen Kim Seungwon, Asen Kim Gisan, and Daisa Sangseol to congratulate the Emperor on his succession. Along with them, Itsukitsusen Kim Salyu and Kannama Kim Jisan were sent as ministers of mourning for the previous emperor. It is also said they were tribute messengers. Kikan Bo Jinmo, the messenger who came to see them off, came as far as Tsukushi with Seungwon and Salyu. On the 24th day, a feast was held for Kikan Bo and the others in Tsukushi, and they were given gifts in differing amounts. Afterward they returned to their country from Tsukushi.
Autumn, eighth month. On the ninth day, the Emperor proclaimed to Ki no Omi Ahemaro and others who were in the country of Iga that for their achievements in the Jinshin War they would be rewarded. On the 20th day, Goguryeo dispatched Shohoizu Daikyo Hanja and Zenhodaikyo Seokgan to the court with tribute. Silla dispatched Kannama Kim Riik to see the messengers from Goguryeo to Tsukushi. On the 25th day, the congratulatory messengers Kim Seungwon and 27 guests above the rank of Nakatsumarou were summoned to the capital. Then the Emperor ordered the Viceroy of Tsukushi to proclaim to the messengers of Jeju-do, “The Emperor has recently pacified the realm and succeeded to the throne. Therefore, those outside of congratulatory messengers are not being summoned. At this time it is getting cold and the waves are getting rough, and a long stay is probably worrisome. You should quickly return to your country.” Then their princes, messengers, and others who were in the country of Kumagi were granted cap ranks for the first time. The cap rank granted them was Upper Daiotsu, and in that cap brocade and embroiderd decorations were hung, equivalent to their own country’s rank of Sahe. Then they were returned home from Tsukushi.
Ninth month. On the 28th day, the Emperor held a feast for Seungwon and the others in Naniwa, and they performed various kinds of music. They were given gifts in different amounts.
Winter, 11th month. On the first day, Seungwon returned to his country. On the 21st day, the Emperor held a feast for Hanja from Goguryeo, Salyu from Silla, and the others in the district of O in Tsukushi, and gave them gifts in varying amounts.
12th month. On the fifth day, the attendants at the feast of first fruits, Nakatomi and Inbe as well men from the Bureau of Shinto Affairs, together with the governors and magistrates of Harima and Tamba and their lower servants, were all given gifts. The magistrates were each given the initial rank. On the 17th day, Shoshi Prince Mino and Lower Shokin Ki no Omi Katamaro were appointed commissioners for the construction of the great temple of Takechi. Now this is Daikandai Temple.
At that time, Abbot Fukurin wanted to quit because of old age. However, he was not permitted to do so. On the 27th day, the monk Gijo was made lesser sozu. On this day, two monks were added as sakan. Then there were four sakan, and the practice of having four sakan started at this time. The year was 673.

Reclamation of Land


Third year, spring, first month. On the tenth day, the King of Baekje Changseong died. He was given the rank of Shoshi.
Second month. On the 28th day, Ki no Omi Ahemaro died. The Emperor was greatly saddened, and for his acheivements during the Jinshin war he was granted the rank of Daishi.
Third month. On the seventh day, Kamioshinumi no Miyatsuko Okuni, governor of Tsushima, said “Silver has been found in this country for the first time. I will present it to the Emperor.” Therefore Okuni was given the rank of Lower Shokin. Silver was first found in the country of Yamato at this time. Therefore they completely worshiped all the gods, and invited and gave it to all the ministers above the rank of Shokin.
Autumn, eighth month. On the third day, the Emperor dispatched Imperial Prince Osakabe to the palace of the god of Ishikami to polish the god’s treasures and weapons with oil. That day, the Emperor said, “Originally jewels and weapons came from many families and were stored in shrines, and now they will all be returned to their desecendents.”
Winter, tenth month. On the ninth day, Imperial Princess Oku set out for Ise Shrine from Hatsuse no Itsuki.
Fourth year, spring, first month. On the first day, the students from the general university, the yin and yang college, the medical college, the women of Shae and Tara, the King of Baekje Seongwang, and Silla’s attendants gave medicines and other rare objects to the Emperor. On the second day, those below the rank of imperial prince paid their respects at court. On the third day, the public officials above first rank sent the Emperor firewood. On the fifth day, an observatory was built. On the seventh day, the Emperor held a banquet for the myriad ministers in the court. On the 17th day, the ministers and other public officials above first rank did archery in the west gate courtyard. Also, on that day the country of Yamato submitted a rare chicken to the Emperor, the country of Azuma a white hawk, and the country of Omi a white eagle. On the 23rd day, offerings were made to the gods at all the shrines.
Second month. On the ninth day, the Emperor ordered the countries of Yamato, Kawachi, Settsu, Yamashiro, Harima, Awaji, Tamba, Tajima, Omi, Wakasa, Ise, Mino, and Owari, saying, “Select from the people men and women who can sing, as well as midgets and actors, and send them to me.” On the 13th day, Imperial Princess Tochi and Imperial Princess Abe were made to serve at Ise Shrine. On the 15th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “In the year 664, the lands for private use that were given to the many clans are from this day forth abolished. Also, the lands of the imperial family, the princes, and the ministers, together with the temples that were given mountain tracts, island ports, forests, fields, and resevoirs, regardless of when they were given, are all taken back.” On the 19th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The myriad ministers, other public officials, and all the people in the realm must not commit evil. If there is a crime, it will be punished according to its nature.” On the 23rd day, the Emperor visited Takayasu Castle. That month, Silla dispatched Prince Chungwon, Daiken Kyusan Kim Biso, Daiken Nama Kim Cheonchung, Daiken Daima Bak Muma, and Daiken Daisa Kim Raksu to submit tribute. The messengers Nama Kim Pungna and Nama Kim Hyobok saw Prince Chungwon and the others to Tsukushi.
Third month. On the second day, the great god of Tosa presented the Emperor with one divine sword. On the 14th day, they feasted Kim Pungna and the others in Tsukushi. Then they went home from Tsukushi. On the 16th day, fourth rank Prince Kurukuma was made head of the Bureau of War, and Upper Shokin Otomo no Muraji Miyuki was made his assistant. That month, Goguryeo dispatched Daikyo Bugan and Daikyo Damu to the court with tribute. Silla dispatched Kyusan Bak Geunsu and Dainama Kim Miha with tribute.
Summer, fourth month. On the fifth day, over 2,400 monks and nuns were asked to do perform a giant saie. On the eighth day, the Emperor ordered that “Upper Shokin Takima no Kimi Hiromaro and Lower Shokin Kuno no Omi Maro are not allowed to come to court.” On the ninth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “As for the poor tax of all the countries, from now on the people should be clearly distinguished and their wealth known, and three classes established. Those below the middle class will receive this tax.” On the tenth day, the Emperor dispatched Shoshiki Prince Mino and Lower Shokin Saeki no Muraji Hiromaro to worship the god Kaze at Tatsuno in Tatsuta. He dispatched Middle Shokin Hashihito no Muraji Ofuta and Middle Daisen Sone no Muraji Karainu to worship the god Oimi at Kawabe in Hirose. 14th day. Lower Shokin Kuno no Omi Maro was stripped of his rank for refusing to comply with the imperial proclamation given to him by a messenger. On the 17th day, the Emperor proclaimed to all the countries, “From this day forth, those that hunt and fish are prohibited from making cage traps, trap holes, or other mechanical traps. Also, from the first day of the first month until the 30th day of the ninth month, it is prohibited to use hinasakiri or fish traps. Also, cow, horse, dog, monkey, and chicken meat is not to be eaten. Meats outside of these are not prohibited. Anyone who violates this will be punished.” On the 18th day, third rank Prince Omi committed a crime and was banished to Inaba. One of his sons was banished to Izu island, and one was banished to Chika island. On the 23rd day, people of various talents were selected and given presents in different amounts. That month, the Prince of Silla, Chungwon, arrived in Naniwa.
Sixth month. On the 23rd day, Okida no Kimi Esaka fell ill and was going to die. The Emperor was greatly shocked, and proclaimed, “You, Esaka, turned your back on your own affairs and turned toward public affairs, with no regard for your own life.Your valorous heart labored in the great struggle. Always I want to show you favor, therefore even after your death, your descendants will be richly rewarded.” Then he raised him to the rank of Tonoshoshi. After a few days he died at his house.
Autumn, seventh month. On the seventh day, Upper Shokin Otomo no Muraji Kunimaro and Lower Shokin Miyake no Kishi Irichi were sent to Silla as ambassador and deputy-ambassador, respectively.
Eighth month. On the first day, Prince Gumaye arrived in Tsukushi as a messenger to deliver the tribute of Jeju-do. On the 22nd day, there were strong winds that caused the sand to fly and damage buildings. On the 25th day, Chungwon, after the ceremonies were completed, went home, setting sail from Naniwa. On the 28th day, a feast was held for the tribute delivery messengers from the two countries of Silla and Goguryeo in Tsukushi. They were given presents in different amounts.
Ninth month. On the 27th day, King Goyeo of Jeju-do arrived in Naniwa.
Winter, tenth month. On the third day, the Emperor dispatched messengers in the four directions to search for the sutra compilations. On the tenth day, there was a drinking party for the myriad ministers. On the 16th day, Tsukushi gave 30 people from Tang to the Emperor. He sent them to the country of Totomi and made them settle there. On the 20th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “All those below the rank of prince and above the lowest rank must prepare weapons.” That day, in the country of Sagami, it was said, “In Takakura district there is a woman who gave birth to three boys.”
11th month. On the third day, someone climbed the hill east of the palace and, after saying words for a curse, cut his throat and died. That night, everyone received one grade of cap rank. That month, there was a big earthquake.

The Great Purification

Fifth year, spring, first month. On the first day, the myriad ministers and other public officials paid their respects at the court. On the fourth day, ministers below Imperial Prince Takechi and above the rank of Shokin were given shirts, pants, cuffs, belts, and cuff ties. They were also given desks and canes. However, the three ranks of Shokin were not given desks. On the seventh day, ministers above the rank of Shokin were given presents of differing values. On the 15th day, public officials above the initial rank gave the Emperor firewood. That day, everyone assembled in the court and the Emperor threw a banquet. On the 16th day, presents were set on the ground and they had a shooting contest at the west gate courtyard. Those who could hit the targets were given presents of differing values. That day, the Emperor had a banquet in Shima Palace. On the 25th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “When appointing governors, outside of the central countries and the countries of Michi and Nagato, the person appointed shall be below the rank of Daisen.
Second month. On the 24th day, the guests from Jeju-do were given a ship. That month, Otomo no Muraji Kunimaro and his envoy arrived in Silla.
Summer, fourth month. On the fourth day, there was worship of the gods Kaze at Tatsuta and Oimi at Hirose. Wanitsumi no Yogoto tributed a rare chicken to the Emperor from the distrcit of Lower So in the country of Yamato. Its crown was shaped like a camellia flower. That day, in Akunami district in the country of Yamato, it was said, “A hen changed into a cock.” On the 14th day, the Emperor commanded, “All the princes and ministers who pay the taxes of the households in their domains in the countries to the west are made exempt, and their payments will be exchanged with those in the countries to the east. Also, should the people of the outer countries want to go into public service, the children of omi, muraji, and tomo no miyatsuko, as well as the children of kuni no miyatsuko, will be allowed to do so. However, those with talent will be permitted even if their rank is lower than this or they are a commoner. On the 22nd day, the Emperor proclaimed to the governor of Mino, “The children of Ki no Omi Ahemaro that are in Toki district will be moved to the country of Azuma, and become people of that land.”
Fifth month. On the third day, it was said that when the submission of tax exceeded the deadline the governor would be held criminal, etc etc. On the seventh day, the governor of Shimotsuke said to the Emperor, “The people in my district had a bad harvest this year, and because of it they are starving and want to sell their children.” The court did not permit it. That month, the Emperor commanded, “It is prohibited to take firewood from Mt. Minabuchi or Mt. Hosokawa. Also the the mountains and fields in the central countries were already prohibited, so do not cut down or burn their trees.”
Sixth month. Fourth rank Prince Kurukuma got sick and died. Prince Mononobe no Muraji also got sick and died. The Emperor heard this and was greatly surprised. During the Jinshin war, he had followed the Emperor to the east and had great victories, so the Emperor bestowed on him the rank of inner Daishi. He was also made the head of his clan. That summer, there was a great drought. The Emperor dispatched messengers in the four directions and they made offerings to the gods of heaven and earth. Also they asked all the monks and nuns to pray to the three treasures of Buddhism. However there was no rain. Therefore the five grains did not sprout, and the people starved.
Autumn, seventh month. On the second day, all the myriad ministers and the other public officials had their cap ranks advanced in varying degrees. On the eighth day, the guests from Jeju-do returned to their country. On the 16th day, there was worship of the gods Kaze in Tatsuta and Oimi in Hirose. That month, Murakuni no Muraji Oyori was praised for his great successes during the Jinshin War, and he was given the rank of outer Shoshi. A star appeared in the east. Its length was 7 or 8 feet, and it lasted until the ninth month.
Eighth month. On the second day, ministers below the rank of imperial prince and above the rank of Shokin, and the imperial princesses, other princesses, and ladies in waiting were provided with food and clothes of in different amounts. On the 16th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “An great purification will be performed everywhere. The kuni no miyatsuko of each country will send the objects for use in purification to their shrines. Those objects will be one horse and one piece of cloth. Similarly the district magistrates will send one sword, one deer hide, one hoe, one katana, one scythe, one set of arrows, and one bundle of rice, and every household one eda of hemp.” On the 17th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The punishments of death and confiscation, as well as the three degrees of banishment, will all be lowered by one level. Crimes with punishments lesser than these, be their agents discovered or no, will all be pardoned. However those who have already been banished will not be pardoned.” That day, the Emperor proclaimed to the myriad countries a hold a hojo ceremony. That month, Omiwa Makamuda no Mukae no Kimi, Shigo, died. The Emperor heard this and was very sad. For his achievements during the Jinshin War, he was given the rank of interior Shoshi and the title Omiwa no Makamuda no Mukae no Kimi, Shigo.
Ninth month. On the first day, there was rain so there was no announcement of the beginning of the month. On the tenth day, the princes and ministers were sent to the capital and the central countries to inspect weapons. On the 12th day, Prince Yakaki, third rank and Viceroy of Tsukushi, commited a crime and was banished to Tosa. On the 13th day, the public officials and all the those from foreign countries were given presents of different values. On the 21st day, the Bureau of Shinto Affairs said to the Emperor, “For the feast of first fruits, we divined which countries and districts should provide the goods. The yuki (yuki is read yu-ki, 踰既) shall be Yamada district in the country of Owari, and the suki (suki is read su-ki, 須伎) Kasa district in the country of Tamba.” That month, Sakata no Kimi Ikazuchi died. For his acheivements in the Jinshin War, he was awarded with the rank of Daishi.
Winter, tenth month. On the first day, there was a drinking party for the myriad ministers. On the third day, offerings were made to the gods for the feast of first fruits. On the tenth day, Upper Daiotsu Mononobe no Muraji Maro and Middle Daiotsu Yamashiro no Atai Motari were dispatched to Silla as ambassador and deputy-ambassador.
11th month. On the first day, there was the feast of first fruits, so there was no announcement of the beginning of the month. On the third day, Silla dispatched Sasan Kim Cheongpyeong to report matters concerning the administration, and with him Kyusan Kim Hoyu and Daisa Kim Heumgil were sent to submit their tribute. Nama Pi Jinna was the messenger who saw them off, and his assistant was Nama Hobok. They saw Cheongpyeong and the others to Tsukushi. That month, seven people of the Mishihase followed Cheongpyeong and came to court. On the 19th day, the Emperor proclaimed to the countries near the capital that they hold a hojo ceremony. On the 20th day, the Emperor dispatched messengers in the four directions, and had them read the Golden Light Sutraand the ninno sutra. On the 23rd day, Goguryeo dispatched Koho Shubo Au as ambassador and Zenho Daikyo Deokbu as deputy ambassador to the court with tribute. Accordingly Silla dispatched Dainama Kim Yangwon and he saw the Goguryeo messengers to Tsukushi. That year, they planned to make the new capital in Niiki, so the interior fields and such, public and private, were all unsowed and went wild. However in the end it was not built.
Sixth year, spring, first month. On the 17th day, they had a shooting contest at the south gate.
Second month. On the first day, Mononobe no Muraji Maro came back from Silla. That month, a feast was held for the people of Tanegashima west of Asuka Temple underneath the zelkova tree.
Third month. On the 19th day, the Emperor summoned the Sillan messenger Cheongpyeong and 13 lower-ranked guests to the capital.
Summer, fourth month. On the 11th day, Kuita no Fubito Nakura directed bad words toward the Emperor’s carriage, so he was banished to Izu island. On the 14th day, a feast was held for Pi Jinna, the messenger who saw off the envoy from Silla, in Tsukushi. Then following the coast of Tsukushi they went home.
Fifth month. On the first day, the announcement of the first day of the month was not made. On the third day, the Emperor ordered that the scholar of Baekje Solmo be granted the rank of Lower Daisen. Also he was given a fief of 30 households. That day, the artist Otokashi from Yamato was granted the rank of Lower Shosen and a fief of 20 households. On the seventh day, the Sillans Asan Bak Japa, three of his retainers, and three monks drifted to the island of Chika. On the 28th day, the Emperor ordered, “The fields owned by the gods of heaven and earth are to be divided into three, the products of one-third going to the god and the other two to the priests.” That month, there was a drought, and in the capital and central countries they prayed for rain.
Sixth month. On the 14th day, there was a big earthquake. That month, the Emperor proclaimed to Yamato no Aya no Atai, “Your clan has up to the present commited treason seven times. From the days of Oharida Empress Suiko] to the days of the Emperor of Omi Emperor Tenji], you all are always making treasonous plots. Now in my own day, I am thinking of punishing you for these things. However I do not want the clan to die out, therefore I will extend my grace and forgive you. However from now on, if you commit a crime, certainly you will not be forgiven.”
Autumn, seventh month. On the third day, there was worship of gods Kaze in Tatsuta and Oimi in Hirose.
Eighth month. On the 15th day, there was preparation for a great saie at Asuka temple and read sutra compilations. Then the Emperor went into the temple through the south gate and did rites to the three treasures of Buddhism. At that time, he proclaimed that the imperial princes, other princes, and the ministers all send one member of their households into the priesthood. It did not matter if they were male or female, young or old, and all followed this request and made priests of them. Thereby they had a giant saie. On the 27th day, Kim Cheongpyeong went back to his country. Also Bak Japa, who had washed ashore, was sent with him, returning him to his land. On the 28th day, Jeju-do dispatched Prince Dora with tribute to the court.
Ninth month. On the 30th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “All of the wandering people that are sent back to their home lands, even if they return, will be held liable for the taxes and forced labor both of the time they are present and the time they were gone.”
Winter, tenth month. On the 14th day, Inner Upper Shokin Kawabe no Omi Momoe was made head of the Bureau of Citizen Affairs and Inner Lower Daikin Tajihi no Kimi Maro was made head of the counry of Settsu.
11th month. On the first day it rained so they did not announce the first day of the month. The Viceroy of Tsukushi sent the Emperor a red crow. Also the viceroy and all the bureaucrats were given gifts of various levels. The one who caught the red crow was given an advance of five cap ranks, and in the district where the crow was caught the cap ranks were increased. Accordingly the people of this district had their taxes refunded to them for one year. That day, the Emperor ordered a great amnesty in the realm. On the 21st day, the feast of first fruits was held. On the 23rd day, the public officials who had ranks were given food. On the 27th day, the men in the Bureau of Shinto Affairs and governors who attended at the feast of first fruits were given presents.
12th month. On the first day it snowed so they did not pronounce the first day of the month.

Collapse of Princess Tochi


Seventh year, spring, first month. On the 17th day, target shooting was performed at the south gate. On the 22nd day, people from Tara headed for the captial. That spring, they revered the gods of heaven and earth, and the realm did a great purification, and Itsuki palace was built near the Kurahashi river.
Summer, fourth month. On the first day, the Emperor wanted to visit Itsuki palace, and did divination for what day was auspicious for travel. It was the seventh day. Then, at the hour of the tiger, the forerunners began to move, and the public officials formed a line behind them, and the Emperor rode in his carriage, but before they had finished, Imperial Princess Tochi suddenly got sick and died in the palace. Therefore they stopped the procession and could not do the ceremony. In the end they didn’t revere the gods of heaven and earth. On the 13th day, lightning struck a pillar in the west of Nii Palace. On the 14th day, Imperial Princess Tochi was buried in Akaho. The Emperor attended the funeral and said words of condolence.
Autumn, ninth month. Oshinumi no Miyatsuko Yoshimaro submitted five rare rice ears that all had branches to the Emperor. Therefore everyone below the punishment of hard labor was pardoned. Third rank Prince Wakasa died.
Winter, tenth month. On the first day, something like cotton fell in Naniwa. Its length was 5 or 6 feet and its width 7 or 8 inches, and according to the wind it swirled around the pine trees and grasses. At that time people said, “It’s sweet dew.” On the 26th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “Those above the rank of Fubito who work in all the inner and outer civil and military bureaus will have an open examination of their loyalty every year, and conference will be held about their talents and deficiencies, and accordingly their rank will be advanced. Before the first ten days of the first month, these should be written down and sent to the legislative bureau. Accordinly the legislative bureau will review them, and then send them to the head of all the departments. However if they do not attend court, public messengers will be sent, and if this person is not truly ill or in mourning clothes, based on their reason they may be denied and not able to advance in rank.”
12th month. On the 27th day, bramblings appeared in the sky and flew from the southwest to the northeast. That month, there was a big earthquake in the country of Tsukushi. A crack in the earth split open with a width of 2 inches and length of over 3,000 inches, and the people’s buildings and villages were all damaged. At that time, one person’s house was on a a hill. The night the earthquake hit, the hill collapsed and the place moved. However the house was still whole and undamaged. The people didn’t know that the hill had collapsed and that the house had moved. When they realized that in the morning, they were very surprised.
That year, Silla dispatched messengers Nama Karou Jeongsan and Nama Kim Hongse, and they arrived in Tsukushi saying, “The king of Silla dispatched Kyusan Kim Somul and Dainama Kim Sese with this year's tribute. Also, Sin Jeongsan was sent with Somul and the others. They met violent wind while at sea. Then Somul and the others dispersed and we do not know where they are. Only Jeongsan came back to the court.” However Somul and the others never came.
Eighth year, spring, first month. On the fifth day, the messengers from Silla Garyang Jeongsan and Kim Hongse headed for the capital. On the seventh day, the Emperor proclaimed, “In the season of the new year, princes, ministers, and public officials shall not bow to those aside from their older brothers and sisters or the head of their clan. For a prince, even if the person is their mother, if she is not of the same clan rank they shall not bow to her. The ministers shall not bow to even their mother if she is of common rank. Aside from the new year, at other times procedures will be the same. If anyone violates it, they will be punished accordingly.” On the 18th day. There was archery in the south gate.
Second month. On the first day, Goguryeo dispatched Joho Daiso Hwanbu, Kaho Daiso Sa Suru, and others to the court with tribute. Accordingly Silla dispatched Nama Gam Mulna to see Hwanbu and the others to Tsukushi. On the third day, Ki no Omi Katamaro died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was given the rank of Upper Daikin. On the fourth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “In 672, the imperial family, myriad ministers, and public officials had their arms and horses inspected. Therefore prepare to deposit them.” That month, the Emperor made great favors to the poor, and gave provisions to those who were hungry and cold.
Third month. On the sixth day, the servant Okida no Kimi Wakami died. During the Jinshin War, he had led the charge and broke the army of Seta. Therefore for his accomplishments he was given the rank of outer Upper Shokin. On the seventh day, the Emperor visited Ochi, and attended on the tomb of Emperess Okamoto [Empress Saimei]. On the ninth day, the Viceroy of Kibi, Prince Ishikawa, got sick and died in Kibi. The Emperor heard this and was greatly saddened, and hung down great favor to him, etc etc. He gave the prince the second rank. On the 22nd day, poor monks and nuns were given rough silk, cotton, and cloth.
Summer, fourth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The amount of food provided to all the temples should be examined, and the places where it should be increased increased, and those where it should be stopped stopped.” That day, they set the names of the temples. On the ninth day, the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta were worshipped.

Alliance of Imperial Princes


Fifth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor visited Yoshino Palace. On the sixth day, the Emperor proclaimed to the Empress, Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto, Imperial Prince Otsu, Imperial Prince Takechi, Imperial Prince Kawashima, Imperial Prince Osakabe, and Imperial Prince Shiki, “I think that now you all should make alliance here in the courtyard, so that for 1,000 years afterwards, nothing happens. What do you think?”
The Imperial Princes all replied together, “Great.”
Then Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto came forth first and swore, “Witness my vow, gods of heaven and earth and Emperor. I and my siblings, old and young, number over ten princes, and each came out of different stomachs. However we make no distinction between same and different, and together abide the orders of the Emperor, helping each other and not fighting. If from now on we break this oath, let our lives end and our descendents perish. May we not forget, and not transgress.” Five princes then made oath as before.
The Empeor then said afterwards, "My sons are each born from different bellies, but now they have the same love as those born of the same mother." Then he opened his collar and embraced the six princes and swore, “If this oath is broken, let us die.” The Empress made a pledge like the Emperor. On the seventh day, the Imperial carriage returned to the palace. On the tenth day, six imperial princes paid their respects to the Emperor in front of the great hall.
Sixth month. On the first day, there was hail. It was about the size of peaches. On the 23rd day, they prayed for rain. On the 26th day, there was worship of the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 26th day, fourth rank Prince Kazuraki died.
Eighth month. On the first day, the Emperor proclaimed, “All the clans should send me women to become ladies in waiting.” On the 11th day, the Emperor visited Hatsuse and had a banquet near the abyss of Todoroki. Previously he had proclaimed to the princes and the ministers, “Aside from horses for riding, prepare good horses so that you can give them to me when asked.” Then on the day he returned from Hatsuse to the palace, he inspected the good horses of the myriad ministers at the stable of Tomi, and ordered them to to race. On the 22nd day, Kazura no Miyatsuko Oshikatsu submitted auspicious rice ears to the Emperor. Though they came from a different seeds, they were of the same type. On the 25th day, Prince Oyake died.
Ninth month. On the 16th day, the messengers that the Emperor had dispatched to Silla returned and served in the court. On the 23rd day, the messengers that were dispatched to Goguryeo and to Jeju-do returned and together served in the court.
Winter, tenth month. On the second day, the Emperor proclaimed, “I hear that recently violent and evil people are numerous on the roads. This is the mistake of the princes and ministers. If I hear there are violent and evil men, it is a sign of disaster and lack of administration. If I see evil men, laziness is hiding and it is not correct. If you see or hear this kind of thing and take care of it, how can there still be violence and evil? From now on, there will be no disaster or laziness, and the high will punish the mistakes of the lower, and the lower remonstrate with the higher, thus the state will be administrated. On the 11th day, there was an earthquake. On the 13th day, the Emperor ordered the systemization of the clothing and clothing colors of monks and nuns, as well as that of their horses and retainers, and also the proper method to follow when they meet and depart from each other. On the 17th day, Silla dispatched Asan Kim Hangna and Sasan Sal Rasaeng to the court with tribute. The tribute items were gold, silver, iron, three-legged cauldrons, brocade, silk, cloth, pelts, horses, dogs, mules, and camels, some ten varieties, each distinct tribute items. For the Emperor, Empress, and crown prince, separate tribute of some number of gold, silver, swords, flags and other items was made. That day, the Emperor ordered, “The monks and nuns usually live inside the temple and protect the three treasures of Buddhism. However those who are old or sick lie on the thin floor for a long time their suffering is prolonged, and it is inconvenient for them to come and go, and sullies a place that should be clean. From now on, each of the related familes will build one or two rooms in an open area, and let the old nourish their bodies, and the sick receive medicine.”
11th month. On the 14th day, there was an earthquake. On the 23rd day, Lower Daiotsu Yamato no Umakaibe no Miyatsuko Muraji and Lower Shootsu Ue no Suguri Kobu were dispatched to Tanegashima as ambassador and deputy ambassador. Their cap ranks were increased by one grade. That month, they first set up gates at Mt. Tatsuta and Mt. Osaka. In Naniwa they made a rope castle.
12th month. On the second day, an auspicious rice ear was found. The imperial princes, other princes, all the ministers, and the other public officials all were given presents of differing values. All crimes below those warranting the death penalty were forgiven. That year, Ito district in the country of Kii presented some grass to the Emperor. Its was shaped like a mushroom, its length one foot, and its diameter was two itadaki. Also, the country of Harima tributed a rare rice ear in which each root had two branches.

Suspension of Temple Funding and Construction of Yakushi Temple


Ninth year, spring, first month. On the eighth day, the Emperor went to mukai no koandono and held a banquest for the princes and ministers in the courtyard of the oandono. That day, Inbe no Obito Kobito was granted the clan title of Muraji. Together with his younger brother Shikobuchi he gladly served the Emperor. On the 17th day, those below the rank of imperial prince but above the rank of Shoken performed archery at the south gate. On the 20th day, it was said in the country of Tsu, “The peaches and plums are ripe in the village of Ikuta.”
Second month. On the 18th day, drums began to sound in the east. On the 26th day, someone said, “I got deer antlers at Mt. Kazuraki. These antlers were from one root and had two stems, and they were not joined in the meat. The meat had fur, and the fur length was one inch. I thought it strange and presented it to the Emperor.” It was probably the antlers of a kirin. On the 27th day, eight servants from Silla were returned to their home country. The Emperor extended grace to them and gave them presents of differing values.
Third month. On the tenth day, the country of Tsu presented a white bunting to the Emperor. Shitoto is read as such. On the 23rd day, the Emperor went to Aki in Uda.
Summer, fourth month. On the tenth day, worship of the gods was performed in Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 11th day, there was a fire at the convent in Tachibana Temple and ten rooms burned. On the 25th day, the Emperor held a feast for Hangna and the other messengers from Silla in Tsukushi. He gave them presents in different amounts. That month, the Emperor proclaimed, “From now on, all the temples will not be administrated by the government, with the exception of the two or three big temples in each of the countries. However temples that are receiving food now will continue to do so for the next thirty years. When the 30 years are up it will be stopped. However, Asuka Temple, while it is not administrated by the government now, was originally administrated and praised for great works. It will be administrated as an example.”
Fifth month. On the first day, the Emperor ordered that rough silk, silk, string, and cloth be given to the 24 temples inside the capital. Each received them in different amounts. That day, they began to read the Golden Light Sutra inside the palace and at all the temples. On the 13th day, Goguryeo dispatched Nanho Daishi Myomun and Seihou Daikyo Jundeok to the court with tribute. Silla dispatched Dainama Gona to see Myomun and the others from Goguryeo to Tsukushi. On the 21st day, Lower Shokin Hada no Miyatsuko Tsunade died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was given the rank of Daishi.
Sixth month. On the fifth day, Hangna and the other Sillan guests returned to their country. On the eighth day, ash fell from the sky. On the 14th day, there was terrible lightning.
Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, a branch from the zelkova tree west of Asuka temple broke off and fell to the ground. On the fifth day, the Emperor went to the home of Inukai no Muraji Otomo and visited him because he was sick. Then he extended favor to him, etc etc. That day, they prayed for rain. On the eighth day, the gods in Hirose and Tatsuta were worshipped. On the tenth day, a red sparrow was in the south gate. On the 17th day, E no I no Muraji Komaro was presented with the rank of Lower Shokin. On the 20th day, the monk Guso of Asuka Temple died. The Emperor dispatched Imperial Prince Otsu and Imperial Prince Takechi to the funeral. On the 23rd day, Lower Shokin Miyake no Muraji Ishitoko died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was given the rank of Lower Daikin. On the 25th day, the court speaker and commissioner of the palace, fifth rank Prince Toneri, fell ill and was nearing death. The Emperor sent Imperial Prince Takechi to look into his condition. The next day, he died. The Emperor was greatly shocked, and dispatched Imperial Prince Takechi and Imperial Prince Kawashima to attend his temporary burial and mourn. The public officials followed in doing koai.
Eighth month. On the fifth day, the Commisioner of Legislation gave the Emperor an auspicious rice ear. Starting that day it rained for three days and there was flooding. On the 14th day, a strong wind blew, breaking trees and damaging buldings.
Ninth month. On the ninth day, the Emperor visited the asatsuma and inspected the horses of those below the rank of Daisen at Nagara shrine, and they performed mounted shooting. On the 23rd day, there was an earthquake. On the 27th day, Prince Kuwauchi died in his home.
Winter, tenth month. On the fourth day, at all the temples in the capital the poor monks and nuns and other people came and were provided with food and things. For each monk or nun, they got four bolts of rough silk, four ton of silk, and six hashi of cloth, and for the shami and shirokinu it was two bolts of rough cloth, two ton of silk, and four hashi of cloth.
11th month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. From six at night to four in the morning, there was a bright light in the east. On the fourth day, 19 people from Goguryeo were returned to their country. There were people who had come after the funeral of Empress Okamoto [Empress Saimei] and stayed as the condolence messengers without going home. On the seventh day, the Emperor proclaimed to the public officials, “If you have a plan to make the country and the people rich, come to the palace and tell me yourself. If it is really good, then it will be made law.” On the tenth day, there was lightning in all directions. On the 12th day, the Empress fell ill. Prayers were said for the Empress and construction began on Yakushi Temple. Also 100 people became monks. Thereby she got better. That day, an amnesty was issued. The next day, the monk Emyo died. The Emperor dispatched three imperial princes to the funeral. On the 24th day, Silla dispatched Sasan Kim Yakpil and Dainama Kim Wonseung to the court with tribute. Three scholars also came with Yakpil to court. On the 26th day, the Emperor fell ill. Therefore 100 people became monks, and then he got better. On the 30th day, bramblings were in the sky and flew from the southeast to the northwest.

The Law of Isame


10th year, spring, first month. On the second day, offerings were made to the gods. On the third day, the public officials paid their respects at court. On the seventh day, the imperial princes were summoned to the interior hall and the ministers and attendents to the exterior hall and together they had a drinking party with music. Accordingly Upper Daisan Kusakabe no Kishi Okata was presented with the rank of Shokin and was given the clan title Naniwa no Muraji. On the 11th day, the Emperor ordered that a fief of 60 houeholds be given to Sakaibe no Muraji Ishitsumi and also that he be provided with 30 bolts of rough silk, 150 kin of silk, 150 hashi of cloth, and 100 mattocks. On the 17th day, all those below the rank of imperial prince but above the rank of Shoken performed archery in the courtyard. On the 19th day, the Emperor proclaimed to both the central countries and all the other countries that they repair their shrines to the gods of heaven and earth.
Second month. On the 25th day, the Emperor was together with the Empress in the great hall and he summoned the imperial princes, other princes, and all the ministers and proclaimed to them, “Now I again want to establish systems and amend the law. Therefore work together with me in repairing this thing. However if we simply set about this task, official affairs will suffer, therefore we will have a division of labor." That day, Imperial Prince Kusakabe was made crown prince, and thereby he administrated the realm. On the 29th day, Ahe no Otoji died. On the 30th day, Shoshi Tagima no Kimi Toyohama was buried.
Third month. On the fourth day, Ahe no Otoji was buried. On the 17th day, the Emperor went to the great hall and made a proclomation to Imperial Prince Kawashima, Imperial Prince Osakabe, Prince Hirose, Prince Takeda, Prince Kuwata, Prince Mino, Lower Daikin Kamitsukeno no Kimi Michizi, Middle Shokin Inbe no Muraji Kobito, Lower Shokin Azumi no Muraji Inashiki, Naniwa no Muraji Okata, Upper Daisen Nakatomi no Muraji Oshima and Lower Daisen Heguri no Omi Kobito ordering the establishment of a record of the past Emperors as well as one of ancient things. Oshima and Kobito themselves wrote these records. On the 21st day, there was an earthquake. On the 25th day, the Emperor was in Nii Palace near the well and had a test of the drums and whistles, and ordered that they practice in harmony.
Summer, fourth month. On the second day, worship of the gods was performed at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the third day, 92 articles of the Law of Isame were set, and the Emperor proclaimed, “From imperial princes on down to the common people, all their clothes shall use gold, silver, pearls, purple, brocade, embroidery, and thin silk as well as furs, crowns, and belts together in various colors and varieties. These clothes will be used to mark differences in status.” The details were noted in an written proclomation. On the 20th day, Nishikori no Miyatsuko Okida, Tai no Atai Yoshimaro, Sukita no Kurahito Mukutari (muku is read mu-ku, 武矩), the same Ishikatsu, Kochi no Atai Agata, Oshinumi no Miyatsuko Kokagami, the same Arata, the same Yoshimaro, Okoma no Miyatsuko Momoe, the same Ashitsuki, Yamato no Atai Tatsumaro, Kadobe no Atai Oshima, Shishihito no Miyatsuko Okina, and Yamashiro no Koma no Ikamaro, all together 14 people, received the clan title of Muraji. On the 17th day, the Emperor held a feast for Myomun and the other guests from Goguryeo in Tsukushi and gave them presents in differing amounts.
Fifth month. On the 11th day, the Emperor worshiped the spirits of his imperial ancestors. That day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The public officials are showing too much respect to the priestesses. Now they go to their gate and plead their case, and make offerings to the priestess and her household. From now on, if this is done, both sides will be punished according to the severity of the case.” On the 26th day, Myomun from Goguryeo went home.
Sixth month. On the fifth day, a feast was held for Yakpil and the other Sillan guests in Tsukushi, and they were given gifts in varying amounts. On the 17th day, they prayed for rain. On the 24th day, there was an earthquake.
Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, a red sparrow was found. On the fourth day, Lower Shokin Uneme no Omi Chikura and Oharida no Omi Maro were made ambassador and deputy ambassador and sent to Goguryeo. On the tenth day, the gods of Hirose and Tatsuta were worshipped. On the 30th day, the Emperor ordered a general amnesty in the realm. At this time, the kuni no miyatsuko each submitted one slave for purification.
Intercalary seventh month. On the 15th day, the Empress prayed at a giant saie and sutras were read in all the temples of the capital.
Eighth month. On the 11th day, Lower Daikin Kamitsukeno no Kimi Michizi died. On the tenth day, the Emperor proclaimed to people of the three kingdoms of Korea, “Previously after you naturalized you were exempt from tax for ten years, and now that has ended. Now, on top of that, you and your descendents who naturalize will be exempt from forced labor.” On the 16th day, the country of Ise presented a white owl to the Emperor. On the 20th day, the messengers who had been sent to Tanegashima presented the Emperor with a map of that country. This country was over 5,000 ri from the capital in the sea south of Tsukushi. The people there cut their hair and wear grass clothes, and the rice is always bountiful, such that with one planting they get two harvests. Its local products were dyes and soft rush along with a great variety of products from the sea. That day, Yakpil returned to his counrty.
Ninth month. On the third day, messengers sent by Goguryeo and Silla arrived together and paid their respects in the court. On the fifth day, the country of Suwa presented the Emperor with a red turtle. It was released into the lake at Shima Palace. On the eighth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “For all the clans and clan leaders that are not established, each will decide a clan leader and send them to the Ministry of Civil Administration.” On the 14th day, the Emperor held a feast for the people from Tanegashima near the river to the west of Asuka temple, and they performed various music for him. On the 16th day, a comet was seen. On the 17th day, Mars went into the moon.
Winter, tenth month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the 18th day, there was an earthquake. On the 20th day, Silla dispatched Satoku Itsukitsusen Kim Chungpyeong and Dainama Kim Ilse with tribute for the court. The tribute was gold, silver, iron, cotton, silk, deer antlers, and other types of fine cloth, each in great number. Also they presented the Emperor, Empress, and crown prince with gold, silver, mist damask, flags, and pelts of many variety and great number. On the 25th day, the Emperor said, “From the rank of Daisen rank down to the rank of Shoken, people must each speak their opinions.” That month, the Emperor went sightseeing in Hiroseno, so a temporary palace was built and the appropriate preparations made. However the Emperor’s carriage did not come. Still, everyone from the imperial princes down to the myraid ministers were in Karunoichi, and their horses were examined. The ministers above the rank of Shokin lined up and were seated below a tree, and those below the rank of Daisen all rode, and together they followed the great route from south to north. Also, messengers from Silla came relaying a message, “Our country’s King died.”
11th month. On the 11th day, there was an earthquake.
12th month. On the tenth day, Lower Shokin Kawahama no Omi Kobito was dispatched to Tsukushi and held a feast for Chungpyeong and the other the Sillan guests. On the 29th day, Tanaka no Omi Kanuchi, Kaki no Moto no Omi Saru, Tabe no Muraji Kunioshi, Takamuka no Omi Maro, Awata no Omi Mahito, Mononobe no Muraji Maro, Nakatomi no Muraji Oshima, Sone no Muraji Karainu, and Fumi no Atai Chitoko, all together ten people, were given the rank of Lower Shokin. That day, Toneri no Miyatsuko Nukamushi and Fumi no Atai Chitoko received the clan title of Muraji.

Chinese-style Clothing and Bowing


11th year, spring, first month. On the ninth day, Upper Daisen Toneri no Muraji Nukamushi was given the rank of Lower Shokin. On the 11th day, the Emperor held a feast for Kim Chungpyeong in Tsukushi. On the 18th day, Hikami no Otoji died in the palace. On the 19th day, there was an earthquake. On the 27th day, Hikami no Otoji was buried in Akaho.
Second month. On the 11th day, Kim Chungpyeong returned to his country. That month, Lower Shokin Toneri no Muraji Nukamushi died. For his achevievements in the Jinshin War he was given the rank of upper Daikin.
Third month. On the first day, the Emperor ordered Shoshi Prince Mino and the ministers who were in the palace, sending them to Nii Castle with orders to look at its shape, for he wanted to make a capital there. On the second day, 22 Emishi in the country of Michi were granted cap ranks. On the seventh day, there was an earthquake. On the 13th day, the Emperor ordered Sakaibe no Muraji Ishiho and others to invent new characters, which they did in one work of 44 scrolls. On the 16th day, the Emperor visited Nii Castle. On the 28th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “All the public officials below imperial princes from now on will not show their rank by their cap, apron, belt, or trousers. Also the cooks and ladies in waiting may not wear their tasuki or hire (hire is read hi-re, 比例).” That day, he also proclaimed, “All the ministers below the rank of imperial prince who now are being supplied with food will no longer be provided as such, and it will be done openly.” That month, Haji no Muraji Mashiki died. For his acheivements in the Jinshin War he was given the rank Upper Daikin.
Summer, fourth month. On the ninth day, there was worship of the gods in Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 21st day, Tajihi no Mahito Shima, Viceroy of Tsukushi, gave the Emperor a giant bell. On the 22nd day, Emishi from the country of Koshi in Ikokina had 70 households and wished to make a district. It was allowed. On the 23rd day, the Emperor proclaimed, “From now on, boys and girls are to tie their hair. By the 30th of the 12th month they should be done tying it. Only I will specify the day to tie up the hair, so wait for that.” Also from this day on women were allowed to ride like men.
Fifth month. On the 12th day, Yamato no Aya no Atai were granted the clan title of Muraji. On the 16th day, the messengers the Emperor had dispatched to Goguryeo, Ambassador Saeki no Omi Hirotari and deputy ambassador Oharida no Omi Maro reported that they had finished their charge and came back. On the 27th day, men and women of the clan Yamato no Atai came and, out of joy at receiving a clan title, paid their respects in the court.
Sixth month. On the first day, The King of Goguryeo dispatched Geho Jokeru Mojeol and Daiko Angga with tribute goods. Accordingly Silla dispatched Dainama Kim Seokgi to see the Goguryeo messengers to Tsukushi. On the sixth day, men for the first time tied their hair up. They wore an urushi no ushuhata on their crown. On the 12th day, the fifth rank Prince Ekuri died.
Autumn, seventh month. On the third day, Hayahito came in large numbers with tribute goods. That day, the Hayahito from Osumi and Ata did sumo in the courtyard. The Hayahito from Osumi won. On the ninth day, Middle Shokin Kashiwade no Omi Maro fell ill. The Emperor sent Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto and Imperial Prince Takechi to inquire about his health. On the 11th day, there was worship of the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 17th day, Kashiwade no Omi Maro died. The Emperor was shocked and very sad. On the 21st day, Maro no Omi, for his service in the year of Jinshin, was presented with the rank of Daishi and got presents. Also the Empress presented him with things as did the bureaucrats. On the 25th day, people from Tanegashima, Yakushima, and Amami were given presents in different amounts. On the 27th day, the Emperor held a feast for the Hayahito in the west of Asuka temple, and they performed various songs. They received presents in varying amounts. The monks and commoners all watched. That day, it was said in the countries of Shinano and Kibi, “Frost fell and it was very windy, so the five grains are not climbing.”
Eighth month. On the first day, the Emperor ordered everyone from the imperial princes down to the ministers to each say what laws should be adopted. On the third day, he threw a feast for the guests from Goguryeo in Tsukushi. That night, around 8, a giant star crossed the sky from east to west. On the fifth day at the hall of lawmaking there was a giant rainbow. On the 11th day, something in the shape of a baptismal flag and the color of fire floated in the sky, floating north, and all the countries saw it. Some people said “It went into the sea of Koshi.” Also the same day a white mist rose from the eastern mountains. Its size was four itadaki. On the 12th day, there was a big earthquake. On the 17th day, at 4 AM, there was a rainbow in the center of the sky, and it faced the sun. On the 13th day, the Viceroy of Tsukushi said, “A three-legged sparrow has been found.” On the 22nd day, the Emperor proclaimed how manners and words would be used. Then he said, “When selecting people, examine their family and background, and afterwards consider them. Even if they state their background, no matter how bright they are, if their family cannot be established, they will not be selected.” On the 28th day, the Emperor ordered that 198 men and women with punishments below the death penalty would be pardoned for Imperial Princess Hidaka’s illness (Imperial Princess Hidaka was also called Imperial Princess Nii). On the 29th day, over 140 people entered the preisthood at Daikandai Temple.
Ninth month. On the second day, the Emperor ordered, “From now on, knee-bending bows and crawling bows will be stoped and we will again use the standing bow employed during the time of the Naniwa court.” On the tenth day at noon, several hundred cranes were at the grand palace and flew high in the sky. In around four koku they dispersed.
Winter, tenth month. On the eighth day, there was a big drinking party.
11th month. On the 16th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The imperial princes, other princes, and myriad ministers, on down to the common people, should completely abide this order. When binding lawbreakers, even in the imperial palace or the court, or in the place that that crime took place, their binding should be seen and heard publicly so that nothing can be concealed. In the case of a serious criminal, an inquiry should be made and according to the results they should be captured. If they resist and cannot be captured, troops of that place should be raised to capture them. If the punishment warrants caning, the cane strikes should be less than 100 and decided based on the seriousness of the crime. Also, if circumstances of the crime are clear but the accused lies and asserts innocence, and does not submit to the prosecutor, then this crime will be added to the original.”
12th month. On the third day, the Emperor proclaimed, “For all the clans, each clan head will send reports to me. In the case of clans with many families, divide them up and settle on seperate heads, then report to the officials. However, the officials, after investigating the circumstances, will make the final division. Therefore abide the decision of the officials. However, for some small reason, do not include someone in your clan who is not.”
12th year, spring, first month. On the second day, the public officials paid their respects at the court. The Viceroy of Tsukushi Tajihi Mahito Shima and others presented the Emperor with the three-legged sparrow. On the seventh day, everyone from the imperial princes down to the miniters was summoned to front of the grand hall and there was a banquet. The myriad ministers were shown the three legged sparrow. On the 18th day, Emperor Akitsumikami Toyoshima Shirasuyamato Neko no Sumera Mikoto [Temmu] ordered that the governors of all the countries, the kuni no miyatsuko, the magistrates and the people all should abide by this order: “When I first climbed into the succession, the heavenly signs were not one or two, but many. I hear that this is when the will of heaven is with the administration, and together they show the heavenly way according to the application of that will. Now in my generation they have been frequent, and therefore I am awed and also happy. The imperial princes, other princes, ministers, and the common people, all the people of the realm, will prosper together.” Those above the rank of Shokon were given presents in various amounts, and all crimes below the death penalty were pardoned, and the people were made exempt from taxes and forced labor.” That day, the dance of oharida and music of the three countries of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla were performed in the courtyard.
Second month. On the first day, Imperial Prince Otsu took charge of the administration of the court for the first time.
Third month. On the second day, the sojo, sozu, and risshi were appointed. Then the Emperor declared to them, “Lead the monks and nuns in the law,” etc etc. On the 19th day, the messengers dispatched to Tanegashima returned.
Summer, fourth month. On the 15th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “From now on, always use copper coins, and do not use silver ones.” On the 18th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “Use of silver coins will not be stopped.” On the 21st day, there was worship of the gods of Hirose and Tatsuta.
Sixth month. On the third day, Otomo no Muraji Makuta died. The Emperor was greatly shocked, and accordingly dispatched Prince Hatsuse to the funeral, and for his merits in the Jinshin War and those of his ancestors he was favorably rewarded. He was given the rank of Daishi and drums and whistles sounded at the funeral. On the sixth day, third rank Prince Takasaka died.
Autumn, seventh month. On the fourth day, the Emperor visited Princess Kagami’s house and inquired about her illness. On the fifth day, Princess Kagami died. That summer, monks and nuns were asked to perform ango in the courtyard for the first time. Also 30 people of pure doings went into the priesthood. On the 15th day, they prayed for rain. On the 18th day, the Emperor went around the capital. On the 20th day, the gods were worshipped at Hirose and Tatsuta. That month, from the start until the eighth month, there was a drought. Dojang, a monk from Baekje, prayed for rain, and it rained.
Eighth month. On the fifth day, there was a great amnesty in the realm. Otomo no Muraji Ofukei died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was given the rank of middle Daikin.
Ninth month. On the second day, there were high winds. Yamato no Atai, Kurukuma no Obito, Moitori no Miyatsuko, Yatabe no Miyatsuko, Fujiwarabe no Miyatsuko, Osakabe no Miyatsuko, Sakikusabe no Miyatsuko, Oshikochi no Atai, Kochi no Aya no Atai, Mononobe Obito, Yamashiro no Atai, Kazuraki no Atai, Tonohatori no Miyatsuko, Kadobe no Atai, Nishikori no Miyatsuko, Kazura no Miyatsuko, Totori no Miyatsuko, Kume no Toneri no Miyatsuko, Hi no Kuma no Toneri no Miyatsuko, Okoma no Miyatsuko, Hada no Miyatsuko, Kawase no Toneri no Miyatsuko, Yamato no Umakai no Miyatsuko, Kochi no Umakai no Miyatsuko, Kifumi no Miyatsuko, Komotsume no Miyatsuko, Magari no Hakozukuri no Miyatsuko, Iso no Kamibe no Miyatsuko, Takara no Himatsuri no Miyatsuko, Hatsukashibe no Miyatsuko, Anahobe no Miyatsuko, Shirakabe no Miyatsuko, Oshinumei no Miyatsuko, Hatsukashi no Miyatsuko, Fumo no Obito, Ohatsuse no Miyatsuko, Kudara no Miyatsuko, and Katari no Miyatsuko receivd the clan title of Muraji, 38 clans in all.
Winter, tenth month. On the fifth day, Miyake no Kishi, Kusakabe no Kishi, Hahaki no Miyatsuko, Fune no Fubuito, Iki no Fubito, Sarara no Umakai no Miyatsuko, Uno no Umakai no Miyatsuko, Yoshino no Obito, Ki no Sakahito no Atai, Uneme no Miyatsuko, Atoki no Fubito, Takechi no Agatanushi, Shiki no Agatanushi, and Kagamitsukuri no Miyatsuko received the clan title of Muraji, 14 clans in all. On the 13th day, the Emperor went hunting in Kurahashi.
11th month. On the fourth day, the Emperor proclaimed to the myriad countries that they learn the Law of Ikusa. On the 13th day, Silla dispatched Kim Jusan and Dainama Kim Jangji with tribute.
12th month. On the 13th day, the Emperor dispatched fifth rank Prince Ise, Lower Daikin Hata no Kimi Yakuni, Lower Shokin Ta no Omi Honji, and Lower Shokin Nakatomi no Muraji Oshima with assistants, scribes, and craftsman to go around to all the countries and set their borders. However they were unable to finish this year. On the 17th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “All of the people of the civil and military bureaus and all people of rank in the capital area must come to the court in the first four months of the year. If they are deathly ill and cannot attend, then they should send a written report to the Bureau of Laws.” Also he declared, “The capital and palaces are not to be in one place, but certainly made in two or three. Therefore first I want to go to Naniwa, and there the public officials will each come and seek land for building houses.”

The Eight-color System of Clan Titles

13th year, spring, first month. On the 17th day, the two clans Mino no Agatanushi and Kura no Kuni no Miyatsuko were given the clan title Muraji. On the 23rd day, the Emperor went to the east courtyard and the ministers attended on him. At that time he summoned those who could shoot, the hikohito, and his attending servants to do archery.
Second month. On the 24th day, there was a feast for Kim Jusan in Tsukushi. On the 28th day, the Emperor dispatched Prince Hirose, Middle Shokin Otomo no Muraji Yasumaro and their assistants, scribes, yin and yang masters, and craftsmen to the capital and ordered them to divine the land for a new capital. That day, he also dispatched Prince Mino and Lower Shokin Uneme no Omi Tsukura to Shinano to inspect the geography. They were sent to look for land to build a capital.
Third month. On the eighth day, Ue no Atai Yumi, a man from Yoshino, presented the Emperor with a white camellia flower. On the ninth day, the Emperor went around the capital and decided on land for a palace. On the 23rd day, Kim Jusan went home.
Summer, fourth month. On the fifth day, those with punishments below banishment were pardoned. On the 13th day, there was worship of the gods of Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 20th day, Lower Shokin Takamuka no Omi Maro was made ambassador and Lower Shosen Tsuno no Omi Ushikai was made deputy ambassador and they were sent to Silla.
Intercalary fourth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor proclaimed, “Next year in the ninth month there will be an examination, therefore teach the methods of proceeding and stopping to the public officials along with the ceremonies.” Then he also proclaimed, “All of those who are in the administration must be in the military. Therefore the people in the all the ministries should put forth effort at using weapons and riding. Horses and weapons will be worn, and you should persevere in their mastery. Those with horses will become cavalry, and those without horses infantry, and they will train together so that there is no defect in their combination. Those who do not follow this order and do not take up horses and arms and wear them will be punished, from imperial prince down to the myriad ministers. Those below the rank of Daisen who should be punished will be punished, and those who should be caned will be caned. Those who put the effort into learning, and can do this, if they commit a crime worthy of death, it will be decreased by two degrees. However those who trust to their own talents and purposely commit a crime will not be forgiven.” Then he also proclaimed, “Men and women, their clothing, whether they have tie strings for pant cuffs or no, and whether they have short ties or let the strings dangle, either is permitted. On days of assmebly, they should wear ties for their pant cuffs and dangle the strings long. Only boys who have black-lacquered headgear should wear them and wear kukurio-style pants. Women over 40 may tie or not tie their hair, and ride horses vertically or sideways: either is permitted. Separately, shamanesses and women with those kinds of jobs can not tie their hair.”
On the 11th day, Prince Mino presented the Emperor with a map of Shinano. On the 16th day, there was a saie in the palace. Therefore the servants who had commited crimes were pardoned. On the 24th day, the monk Fukuyo from Asuka Temple was put in prison. On the 29th day, Fukuyo stabbed himself in the neck and died.
Fifth month. On the 14th day, 23 people, both monks and nuns as well as common people, were all made to settle in the country of Musashi. On the 28th day, Miwa no Hiketa no Kimi Naniwamaro was made ambassador and Kuwahara no Muraji Hitotari was made deputy ambassdor and they were sent to Goguryeo.
Sixth month. On the fourth day, they prayed for rain.
Autumn, seventh month. On the fourth day, the Emperor went to Hirose. On the ninth day, there was worship of the gods of Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 23rd day, a comet was seen in the northwest, and its length was over one jo.
Winter, tenth month. On the first day, the Emperor proclaimed, “I now amend the clan titles of all the clans, and set eight colors of clan titles for all the mixed 10,000 clan titles of the realm. The first is Mahito, the second Ason, the third Sukune, the fourth Imki, the fifth Michinoshi, the sixth Omi, the seventh Muraji, and the eighth Inaki.” That day, thirteen clans, Moriyama no Kimi Takahashi no Kimi, Mikuni no Kimi, Tagima no Kimi, Umaraki no Kimi, Tajihi no Kimi, Ina no Kimi, Sakata no Kimi, Hata no Kimi, Okinaga no Kimi, Sakahito no Kimi, and Yamaji no Kimi were given the clan title of Mahito. On the 30th day, the Emperor dispatched Prince Ise to establish the borders of the myriad countries. That day, Agata Inukai no Muraji Tasuki was made ambassador and Kawahara no Muraji Kane was made deputy ambassador and they were dispatched to Jeju-do. On the 14th day at 10 PM there was a big earthquake. The men and women of the country all screamed and did not know east from west, and the mountains crumbled and the rivers boiled. The administrative buildings in all the countries and the granaries, houses, temples, pagodas, and shrines of the people were damaged in numbers too high to count. Therefore many people and livestock died. At that time, the hot spring of Iyo stopped coming out, and in Tosa over 500,000 fields sank into the sea. At that time the old people said, “An earthquake like this has never happened in the past.” That night, drums were heard in the east. Someone said, “The two sides of Izu island, north and west, have increased by over 300 jo and another island has been made. The sound of drums was the echo of the gods making this island.” On the 16th day, the princes and ministers were given gifts in differing amounts.
11th month. On the first day, Omiwa no Kimi, Okasuga no Omi, Kose no Omi, Kashiwade no Omi, Ki no Omi, Hata no Omi, Mononobe no Muraji, Heguri no Omi, Sasakibe no Omi, Nataomi no Muraji, Oyake no Omi, Awata no Omi, Ishikawa no Omi, Sakurai no Omi, Uneme no Omi, Tanaka no Omi, Oharida no Omi, Hozumi no Omi, Yamashiro no Omi, Kamo no Kimi, Ono no Omi, Kawabe no Omi, Ichii no Omi, Kaki no Moto no Omi, Karube no Omi, Wakasakurabe no Omi, Kishita no Omi, Takamuka no Omi, Shishihito no Omi, Kume no Omi, Inukami no Kimi, Kamitsukeno no Kimi, Tsno no Omi, Hoshikawa no Omi, O no Omi, Munakata no Kimi, Kurumamochi no Omi, Aya no Kimi, Shimotsumichi no Omi, Iga no Omi, Ahe no Omi, Hayashi no Omi, Hami no Omi, Shimotsukeno no Kimi, Samo no Kimo, Chimori no Omi, Ono no Kimi, Sakamoto no Omi, Ikeda no Omi, Tamate no Omi, and Kasa no Omi, all together 52 families, were given the clan title of Ason. On the third day, the governor of Tosa said, “Because of a tsunami, the seawater came forth and a great number of the ships used for transporting taxes were lost.” On the 21st day at 8 PM, seven stars fell in the northeast. On the 23rd day at 6 PM, a star fell in the east. It was as big as a platter. At 8 PM, the heavens were in chaos, and stars fell like rain. That month, a star shone in the central heavens. It moved with subaru, but by the end of the month it could not longer be seen.
12th month. On the second day, Otomo no Muraji, Saeki no Muraji, Azumi no Muraji, Inbe no Muraji, Owari no Muraji, Kura no Muraji, Nakatomi no Sakahito no Muraji, Haji no Muraji, Kanimori no Muraji, Sakaibe no Muraji, Sakurai no Tabe no Muraji, Iokibe no Muraji, Kannakibe no Muraji, Osakabe no Muraji, Kusakabe no Muraji, Miyake no Muraji, Kobe no Muraji, Tasuki no Tajihi no Muraji, Yuki no Tajihi no Muraji, Nuribe no Muraji, Ooyue no Muraji, Wakayue no Muraji, Yuge no Muraji, Kanhatori no Muraji, Nukatabe no Muraji, Tsumori no Muraji, Agata no Inukai no Muraji, Wakainukai no Muraji, Tama no Ya no Muraji, Niitabe no Muraji, Shitsuori no Muraji (shitsuori is read shi-tsu-o-ri, 之頭於利), Hi no Muraji, Oshiama no Muraji, Yamabe no Muraji, Yatsume no Muraji, Sai no Muraji, Hatakumi no Muraji, Ato no Muraji, Manta no Muraji, Tame no Muraji, Chiisakobe no Muraji, Uji no Muraji, Oharida no Muraji, Itsukai no Muraji, Ama no Inukai no Muraji, Hashihito no Muraji, Tsukiyone no Muraji, Mino no Yatsume no Muraji, Moroai no Omi, and Furu no Muraji, all together 50 clans, were given the clan title of Sukune. On the sixth day, the students in Tang, Haji no Sukune Oi and Shira no Fubito Hone, as well as Itsukai no Muraji Kobito and Tsukushi no Miyake no Muraji Tokuko who were captured during the fall of Baekje, made their way through Silla. Silla dispatched Dainama Kim Mulyu to see Oi and the others to Tsukushi. On the 13th day, all criminals except those on death row were pardoned.
That year, the Emperor declared, “The four countries of Iga, Ise, Mino, and Owari are from now on in tax years exempt from forced labor, and in years of forced labor exempt from tax.” In Yamato, in the district of Lower Kazuraki, it was said, “A four-legged chicken has been found.” Also, in Taniwa country, in the district of Hikami it was said, “A calf with 12 horns has been found.”

Amendment of Cap Ranks and Rank Clothing


14th year, spring, first month. On the second day, the public officials paid their respects at the court. On the 21st day, the Emperor again amended the names of the cap ranks and increased them. For Princes and above, the rank of Myoi had two grades and Joi had four grades, and the cap ranks each were given the grades of "big" and "wide" to make 12 total ranks. For the ministers, the rank of Shoi had four grades, Jikii had four grades, Kini had four grades, Mui had four grades, Tsuii had four grades, and Shini had four grades, and each had the grades of "big" and "wide," to make 48 ranks. These were for the ministers. That day, Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto received the rank of Joko-ichi, Imperial Prince Otsu rank of Jodai-ni, Imperial Prince Takechi the rank of Joko-ni, and Imperial Prince Kawashima and Imperial Prince Osakabe that of Jodai-san. The princes and ministers below them each received a cap rank and gifts in varying degrees.
Second month. On the fourth day, 147 men from Tang, Baekje, and Goguryeo were presented with cap ranks.
Third month. On the 14th day, the Emperor had a feast for Kim Mulyu in Tsukushi. Then following the Tsukushi coastline he returned home. 7 Sillans who had washed up were sent back with him. On the 16th day, Minister of the Capital Jikidai-san Kose no Ason Shitano died. On the 27th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “In the households of every country build a Buddhist altar, and set a Buddhist statue and sutras, and cultivate yourselves in it.” That month, ash fell in Shinano and the grass and trees all withered.
Summer, fourth month. On the fourth day, the governor of Kii said, “The hot springs at Muro no longer come out.” On the 12th day, there was worship of the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 17th day, the Sillan Kim Jusan went home. Starting on the 15th day, monks and nuns were invited to the temple to perform ango.
Fifth month. On the fifth day, archery was performed at the south gate. The Emperor visited Asuka temple and gave rare treasures to the Buddha and carefully observed the rites. On the 19th day, Jikidai-shi Awata no Ason Mahito requested to pass on his position to his father, however the Emperor would not allow it. That day, Jikidai-san Tagima no Mahito Hiromaro died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was granted the rank of Jikidai-ichi. On the 26th day, Takamuka no Ason Maro and Tsuno no Ushikai and others returned from Silla. The student monks Kanjo and Ryokan also returned with them. The King of Silla sent two horses, three dogs, two parrots, and two magpies, and other various things to the Emperor.
Sixth month. On the 20th day, Yamato no Muraji, Kazuraki no Muraji, Oshikochi no Muraji, Yamashiro no Muraji, Naniwa no Muraji, Ki no Sakahito no Muraji, Yamato no Aya no Muraji, Kochi no Aya no Muraji, Hada no Muraji, Osumi no Muraji, and Fumi no Muraji, all together 11 clans, were given the clan title of Imiki.
Autumn, seventh month. On the 21st day, there was worship of the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 26th day, the Emperor ordered the establishment of clothing colors for those below the rank of Myoi and above the rank of Shini. Those below the rank of Joi would wear vermillion. (Vermillion, hanezu, is read ha-ne-zu, 波泥孺.) The rank of Shoi would wear deep purple, and Jikii light purple, Kini deep green, Mui light green, Tsuii dark blue, and Shini light blue. On the 27th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “For those in the east mountains, east of Mino, and the eastern sea, east of Ise, those of rank in those countries are exempt from taxes and forced labor.”
Eighth month. On the 12th day, the Emperor went to Jodo Temple. On the 13th day, the Emperor went to Kawahara temple. He gave the monks rice. On the 12th day, the messengers sent to Jeju-do returned.
Ninth month. On the ninth day, the Emperor had a banquet in the andono of the old palace. That day, different amounts of cloth were given to all from the crown prince down to Imperial Prince Osakabe. On the 11th day, Prince Miyatokoro, Prince Hirose, Prince Naniwa, Prince Takeda, and Prince Mino were sent around the capital and the central countries with orders to to inspect the people’s weapons. On the 15th day, Jikiko-shi Tsuno no Ason Ushikai was sent to the east sea, Jikiko-shi Ishikawa Ason Mushina to the east mountain country, Jikiko-shi Sami no Ason Sukunamaro to Kagetomo no Michi, Jikiko-shi Kose no Ason Awamochi to Sotomo no michi, Jikiko-san Minchi no Mahito Tomi to the south sea, and Jikiko-shi Saeki no Sukune Hirotari to Tsukushi, each with one assitant and one scribe, to obseve the condition of the governors, magistrates, and the people. Also, on the same day he declared, “All male singers, female singers, and whistle blowers are ordered to teach these songs and whistles to their descendents.”
The Emperor went to the andono and summoned the princes and ministers to the front of the hall, and ordered them to give him things. That day, Prince Miyadokoro, Prince Naniwa, Prince Takeda, Mikuni no Mahito Tomotari, Agata no Inukai no Sukune Otomo, Otomo no Sukune Miyuki, Sakaibe no Sukune Iwatsumi, O no Ason Honji, Uneme no Ason Tsukura, and Fujiwara no Ason Oshima, all together ten men, were granted clothes. On the 19th day, 48 men, from the crown prince down to the princes, were given bear and wild goat pelts, each in different amounts. On the 20th day, the messengers sent to Goguryeo came back. On the 24th day, the Emperor was in bad health, so for three days they said sutras in Daikandai Temple, Kawahara Temple, and Asuka Temple. Accordingly they were each given rice in different amounts. On the 27th day, the men from Goguryeo who had naturalized were given presents in different amounts.
Winter, tenth month. On the fourth day, the monk from Baekje Sanghwi was granted a fief of 30 households. This monk lived to be 100 years old. On the eighth day, the monk from Bakeje Beopjang and Ubasoku Masuta no Atai Konsho were sent to Mino to get stomach medicine. Therefore they were given rough silk, silk, and cloth. On the tenth day, the Emperor dispatched Karube no Ason Taruse, Takata no Obito Niinomi, and Aratao no Muraji Maro to Shinano with orders to build a temporary palace. Probably the Emperor was planning to vist the hot springs at Tsukama. On the 12th day, Jodai-shi Prince Hatsuse and Jikiko-shi Kose Ason no Umakai, along with 28 people that were assistants or lower, were sent to manual labor in the central countries. On the 17th day, Prince Ise headed toward the country of Azuma. Therefore he was give shirts and pants. That month, they recited the kongohannya sutra in the palace.
11th month. On the second day, 10,000 kin of government-use metal were sent to the place that Suwa no Suburuosa was in. That day, the Viceroy of Tsukushi asked for 100 bolts of rough silk, 100 kin of string, 300 hashi of cloth, 400 tsune of tax cloth, 10,000 kin of iron, and 20,00 ren of bamboo arrows for official use. They were sent to Tsukushi. On the fourth day, the Emperor ordered all the countries, saying, “Large antlers, small antlers, drums and whistles, flags, mechanical bows and slings may not be kept in private homes. They should be stored in the district granary.” On the sixth day, the Emperor went to Shiranishiki no Misone. On the 24th day, Beopjang and Gimjong presented stomach medicine to the Emperor. That day, they did mitamifuri for the Emperor. On the 27th day, Silla dispatched Hachinsan Kim Jisang and Daiasan Kim Geonhun and they asked about administrative things and also presented tribute.
12th month. On the fourth day, the guardsmen that had been dispatched to Tsukushi met high waves at sea and lost all their clothes. Therefore for their clothing 450 hashi of cloth were sent to Tsukushi. On the tenth day, there was an earthquake in the west. On the 16th day, rough silk, silk, and cloth were given to the monks at Daikandai Temple. On the 19th day, by order of the Empress, 55 of the princes and ministers were given one set of court clothing.

Death of Emperor Temmu


First year of Shucho, spring, first month. On the second day, the Emperor went to the great hall and threw a banquet for the princes and ministers. That day, the Emperor proclaimed, “I will ask the princes and ministers riddles. If they can answer, they will certainly be rewarded.” Then Imperial Prince Takechi answered correctly, and was given three sets of harisuri, two sets of brocade pants, 20 bolts of rough silk, 50 kin of thread, 100 kin of silk, and 100 hashi of cloth.
Prince Ise also answered correctly and was given three sets of kurisome, two sets of purple pants, seven bolts of rough silk, 20 kin of thread, 40 kin of silk, and 40 hashi of cloth. Also on the same day, Kudara no Niiki from the country of Tsu gave the Emperor white agate. On the ninth day. the sango, manager of Daikandai Temple, and some sakan, all together nine monks, were fed normal food and nourished by it. They were given rough silk, silk, and cloth, each in different amounts. On the tenth day, the Emperor gave the princes and ministers one set of pants and shirts. On the 13th day, the Emperor summoned all the men of talents, professors, yin and yang professors, and doctors, all together 20 men, and gave them food and presents. There was a fire at the treasury in Naniwa and the palace was completely burned. One person said, “There was a fire at the house of Ato no Muraji Kusuri and it spread to the palace.” However the armory was not burned.
On the 16th day, the Emperor went to the great andono and summoned the princes and ministers there and threw a banquet for them. Therefore he gave them rough silk, silk, and cloth, each in different amounts. The same day, the Emperor asked the myriad ministers riddles. If they could answer at that time, they were given additional rough silk and silk. On the 17th day, there was a banquet in the Empress’ palace. On the 18th day, there was a drinking party in the courtyard. That day, The Emperor went in front of the mimuro hall and gave the actors presents of differing values. The singers all received pants and shirts. On the 19th day, there was an earthquake. That month, for the banquet of Kim Jisang from Silla, Joko-shi Prince Kochi no Okimi, Jikiko-san Otomo no Sukune Yasumaro, Jikidai-shi Fujiwara no Ason Oshima, Jikiko-shi Sakaibe no Sukune Konoshiro, and Jikiko-shi Hodumi no Ason Mushimaro were sent to Tsukushi.
Second month. On the fourth day, the Emperor went to the great andono. Six of the ministers attending on him were granted the rank of Kin. On the fifth day, the Emperor ordered the selction of nine governors that had accomplished great deeds, and they were granted the rank of Kin.
Third month. On the sixth day, Jikidai-san Hata no Mahito Yakuni from the Bureau of Speaking fell ill. For him three men were made monks. On the tenth day, it snowed. On the 25th day, Hata no Mahito Yakuni died. For his accomplishments in the Jinshin War, he was granted the rank Jikidai-ichi.
Summer, fourth month. On the eighth day, the Emperor's doctor, Omotokusushi Kuwahara no Suguri Katsu, was granted the rank of Jikiko-shi and the clan title of Muraji. On the 13th day, musicians from Kawahara temple were transported to Tsukushi for the feast of the Sillan guests. 5,000 bundles of the Empress’ private rice was granted to Kawahara temple. On the 19th day, the Sillans paid tribute in Tsukushi. It consisted of one good horse, one mule, two dogs, a vessel etched in gold, gold, silver, mist brocade, thin silk gauge, tiger and leopard skins, and various medicines, in all 60 varieties of things. Separately they gave gifts to the Empress, crown prince, and all the impreial princes, each in great number. On the 27th day, the Emperor dispatched Imperial Princess Taki, Imperial Princess Yamashiro, and Imperial Princess Ishikawa to the shrine in Ise.
Fifth month. On the ninth day, Imperial Princess Taki and the others returned from Ise. That day, the doctor Eokin from Baekje got sick and was approaching death. He was given the rank of Kindai-ichi and fief of 100 households. On the 14th day, the Emperor ordered that Daikandai temple be given fief of 700 households and 300,000 bundles of rice. On the 17th day, The palace attendants had their cap ranks increased. On the 24th day, the Emperor fell ill, so monks from Kawahara temple recited the sutra toBhaisajyaguru in the palace and did ango. On the 29th day, the Emperor had a feast for Kim Jisang and his envoy in Tsukushi and gave them all gifts of various values. Then he returned from Tsukushi. That month, the Emperor ordered that his nearby servants be dispatched to clean all the temples and their halls and towers. There was a great amnesty in the realm, and the prisons were emptied.
Sixth month. On the first day, Tsukimoto no Suguri Kachimaro was given the clan title of muraji, the rank Kindai-ichi, and a fief of 20 households. On the second day, craftsmen, yin and yang masters, doctors, Tang students, and one or two palace servants, all together 30 people, were awarded cap ranks. On the seventh day, 28 men of acheivement were selected from among the ministers and their rank was increased. On the tenth day, the Emperor’s sickness was divined, and there was an evil spirit in the Kusanagi sword. That day, the sword was sent to be placed in Atsuta shrine in the country of Owari. On the 12th day, they prayed for rain. On the 16th day, Ise no Kimi and his bureaucrats were in Asuka temple, and the Emperor ordered all the monks, “Recently, my body has been ill. I want to depend on the power of the three trasures, and my body to be made better. Let the sojo, sozu, and all the monks swear to pray for this.” Therefore he made gifts of rare things to the three treasures of Buddhism. That day, the sango, risshi, shiji no wajo, chiji, and monks of the norinoshi rank received clothes and other clothes one set. On the 19th day, the Emperor ordered the dispatch of bureaucrats to Kawahara temple to do nentokuyo, and have a giant saie and perform kega. On the 28th day, the masters Honin and Gisho were given fiefs of 30 households to nourish their aged bodies. On the 22nd day, there was a fire at the facility in Nabari which housed game for the Emperor's meals.
Autumn, seventh month. On the second day, the Emperor ordered, “From now on, as before men will wear habakimo and women will let their hair hang down their backs.” That day, the sojo and sozu came to the palace and did kega. On the third day, he invited the myriad countries for a great purification. On the fourth day, in the whole country taxes were reduced by half and there was no forced labor. On the fifth day, offerings were made to the god Kunikakasu in the country of Kii, Yotsu Shrine in Asuka, and the great gods at Sumi no E. On the eighth day, 100 monks were summoned to recite the Golden Light sutra in the palace. On the tenth day, there was lightning in the south and a great roar. The heavens burned and there was a fire at a building at the Ministry of Popular Affairs. Someone said, “Imperial Prince Osakabe’s palace had a fire that spread to the Ministry of Popular Affairs.” On the 15th day, the Emperor said, “Matters of the realm should be left to the empress and crown prince without asking if they are small or large.” That day, there was a great amnesty. On the 16th day, there was worship of the gods at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 19th day, the Emperor proclaimed, “The people of the realm, in their poverty, borrowed rice and valuable things. If they were borrowed before the 12th month of 685, whether publicly or privately, the loan need not be paid back.” On the 20th day, the era name was changed to Shucho (read a-ka-mi-to-ri, 阿訶美苔利). The name of the palace was called Asuka Kiyomihara Palace. On the 28th day, 70 people of clean doings were selected to become monks. Then there was a saie at the palace in the mimuro hall. That month, the princes and ministers for the Emperor built a statue of Guan Yin and said the sutra of Guan Yin in Daikandai temple.
Eighth month. On the first day, 80 monks entered the priesthood for the Emperor. On the second day, the people who became monks and nuns totaled 100 people. Therefore 100 buddhist statues were set in the temple and the 200 scrolls of the sutra of Guan Yin were read. On the ninth day, prayers were made to the gods for the Emperor to recover. On the 13th day, Hada no Imiki Iwakatsu was dispatched to make offerings to the great god at Tosa. That day, the crown prince, Imperial Prince Otsu, and Imperial Prince Takechi each had their fiefs increased by 400 households. Imperial Prince Kawashima and Imperial Prince Osakabe had their their fiefs increased by 100 households. On the 15th day, Imperial Prince Shiki (芝基) and Imperial Prince Shiki (磯城) each had their fiefs increased by 200 households. On the 21st day, Hi no Kuma Temple, Karu Temple, and Okubi Temple each were given a fief of 100 households. There was a limit of 30 years on them. On the 23rd day, Kose Temple was given fief of 200 households.
Ninth month. On the fourth day, everyone from the imperial princes down to the myriad ministers assembled in Kawahara Temple and prayed for the Emperor’s illness, etc etc. On the ninth day, in the end, the Emperor’s illness was unchanged, and he died in the palace. On the 11th day, mourning began. The temporary burial palace was built in the south courtyard. On the 24th day, at the temporary burial palace in the south courtyard, they did koai. At that time, Imperial Prince Otsu plotted against the crown prince. On the 27th day at 4 AM, all the monks and nuns mourned at the temporary burial palace and then retired. That day, they did mike and eulogized. First, Oshiama no Sukune Arakama eulogized on behalf of . Second, Jodai-shi Prince Ise eulogized for the princes. Next, Jikidai-san Agata no Inukai no Sukune Otomo eulogized for those in the palace. Next, Joko-shi Prince Kochi eulogized for the servants on the left and right. Next, Jikidai-san Tagima no Mahito Kunimi eulogized for the soldiers on the left and right. Next, Jikidai-shi Uneme Ason Tsukura eulogized for the women of the palace. Next, Jikiko-shi Ki no Ason Mahito eulogized for the stewards.
On the 28th day, all the monks and nuns mourned at the temporary burial courtyard. That day, Jikidai-san Fuse no Ason Minushi eulogized for the central government. Next, Jikiko-san Ishikawa no Ason Maro eulogized for the bureau of legislation. Next, Jikidai-shi Omiwa no Ason Takechimaro eulogized for the administrative officials. Next, Jikiko-san Otomo no Sukune Yasumaro eulogized for the treasury. Next, Jikidai-shi Fujiwara no Ason Oshima eulogized for the war ministry. On the 29th day, the monks and nuns mourned. That day, Jikiko-shi Ahe no Kuno no Ason Maro eulogized for the judges. Next, Jikiko-shi Ki no Ason Yumihari eulogized for the ministry of popular affairs. Next, Jikiko-shi Hozumi no Ason Mushimaro eulogized for all the governors. Next, the Hayato of Osumi and Ata and Yamato and Kochi no Umakaibe no Myakko each eulogized. On the 30th day, the monks and nuns did koai. That day, the King of Baekje Ryangu eulogized in place of the King of Baekje Seongwang. Next, the kuni no miyatsuko of all the countries attended and each eulogized. Then they did various songs and dances.

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