The Emperor Resolves to Move Eastward
Emperor Kamuyamato Iwarebiko [Jimmu] was called Hikoho Hodemi after his death. He was the fourth child of Hiko Nagisa Gayafuki Aezu no Mikoto. His mother was called Princess Tamayori. She was the younger daughter of the Sea God. The Emperor was astute and resolute from the time of his birth. At fifteen years of age he became crown prince. When he was grown, he married Ahira Tsuhime from the country of Hyuga, and she gave birth to Tagishimimi no Mikoto. At the age of 45, he advised his brothers and children, saying, “Of old our heavenly gods Takami Musubi and Ohirume entrusted this fertile reed country of rice ears to our heavenly ancestor Hikoho no Ninigi. Then he opened heaven’s door and cleared away the clouds, and after the way was cleared came to rest. At that time, the land was wild and disorderly. Therefore in this darkness they nurtured the proper ways and ruled up to this western border. Our ancestors and father, as gods and sages, increased in fortune and glory, and since then many years have passed. Since the descent of our heavenly ancestor, 1,792,470 years have passed. However the lands far away still are not profiting as part of the kingdom. There, every city has a ruler, every village has a chief, and they make themselves strong individually and use that strength to fight amongst themselves. This I heard from Old Man Shitsutsu. He said that in the east there is a beautiful land, surrounded by four mountains. In the middle of this land there is a heavenly stone ship ridden by someone who flew down. This land is certainly producing great industry, and shines throughout the house under heaven. It is called the center of the six directions, and the one who flew down on the ship is probably Nigiihayahi. Why do we not call this land our capital?
Then the myriad princes answered him, saying “These words shine with the light of reason. We also have been thinking the same thing. We must enact this plan soon.” The year was Kinoe Tora [667 B.C.].
The Emperor Moves to Chugoku
That year’s winter, on the fifth day of the tenth month, the Emperor led the princes and a regatta eastwards to conquer. They arrived first at the gate of Hayasui. There there was one fisherman riding a small boat who approached them. The Emperor beckoned and asked him, “Who are you?”
He replied, “I am one of this country’s gods, called Uzuhiko. I was fishing at Wada no Ura, and heard that the heavenly divine child would come, therefore I went to greet and attend on him.”
The Emperor inquired of him again, saying, “Can you guide me?”
He said, “I can.” Then the Emperor commanded that a rod of Shii be bestowed upon the fisherman, and removed the fisherman into his own boat, and the fisherman guided it through the water. Then he was given a special name, Shihi no Ne no Tsuhiko. (Shihi is read shi-hi, 辞[田比]). He was the first ancestor of the Ataira of Yamato.
Then he arrived in Usa in the country of Tsukushi. (Usa is the name of a place, read u-sa, 宇佐). It is the origin of the ancestors of Usa Tsuhiko and Usa Tsuhime, the Kuni no Miyatsuko of Tsukushi. Near the river in Usa he made a one pillar shrine called Ashihitotsuagarinomuiya and had a feast there. (Ashihitotsuagarinomuiya is read a-shi-hi-to-tsu-a-ga-ri-no-mi-ya, 阿斯田比苔徒鞅餓離能宮.) At that time, by imperial decree, he married Usa Tsuhime to his attending minister Ama no Tane no Mikoto. Ama no Tane no Mikoto is the distant ancestor of the Nakatomi clan.
Eleventh month. On the ninth day, the Emperor arrived at the port of Oka in the country of Tsukushi.
Twelfth month. On the 27th day, the Emperor arrived in the country of Aki and stayed in the Palace of E.
The Emperor's Force Advances
Year of Ki no Tonou [668 B.C.], spring, third month. On the sixth day, the Emperor went into the country of Kibi and made a palace there and lived in it. It is called Takashima Palace. He stayed for three years, during which time he prepared ships and rations for soldiers, as he wanted to pacify the entire realm in one fell swoop.
Year of Tsuchinoe Uma [671 B.C.], spring, second month. On the 11th day, the Emperor led his army eastwards. The fore and aft of all the boats were all connected, and they came to the cape of NaniwaNaniwa and there met with a violent tide. Therefore, that place was called the country of Namihaya, the fast waves. It is also called Namihana. It is now called Naniwa, but that is a corruption. (Yokonamaru is read Yo-ko-na-ma-ru, 与許奈磨盧).
Third month. On the 10th day, they went upstream and arrived in the country of Kawachi at the port of Aokumo no Shirakata in the village of Kusaka.
Spring, fouth month. On the ninth day, the Emperor led his soldiers on foot toward Tatta. However, the road was steep and narrow, and his men could not pass through in rank. So they backtracked, and went further to the east, to Mt. Ikoma, and from there entered into the country’s interior. At this time, Nagasunebiko heard this and said, “These children of the heavenly gods have come, and they will certainly steal my country.” He mustered all of his soldiers and fortified the hill of Kusae, and there engaged them. Arrows flew, and Itsuse no Mikoto was hit in the elbow. The Emperor’s force was unable to advance.
The Emperor was distressed by this, and made a secret plan in his heart, saying “Now I am the descendant of the sun god, yet I attacked the enemy while facing the sun; this is against the way of heaven. Rather, we should retreat and show weakness, and make homage to our god, and attack bearing her on our back, treading them down in our shadow.”
All said, “It is so.”
Then, ordering the army from within, he said, “Halt. Hold.” Then they pulled back. The enemy did not pursue. Then they retreated to the port of Kusaka and made a shield wall, and then raised their voices. (Otakebi is read Wo-ta-ke-bi, 烏多鶏縻). Therefore this cape was named again, and called Tatetsu. (Now it is called Tadetsu, a corruption of this). Previously, during the battle of Kusae, one man hid inside a large tree and thus avoided injury. Then he pointed to the tree and said, “This tree is as much a benefactor as my own mother.” At that time the man named that place the village of Omonoki. Now it is called Omonoki, a corruption.
The Sword of Takemikazuchi
Fifth month. On the eighth day, the army arrived at the port of Yamaki in Chinu. It is also called Yamanoi no Mizuto. (Chinu is read chi-nu, 智怒). At that time, Itsuse no Mikoto’s arrow wound caused him great pain. Then gripping the hilt of his sword, he raised his voice, saying, (u-ru-gi-no-ta-ka-mi-to-ri-shi-ba-ru, 都盧耆能多伽弥屠利辞魔屢) “It is unfortunate that while I was healthy (unfortunately is read u-re-ta-ki-ka-ya, 宇黎多棄伽夜), I was injured at the enemy’s hand and cannot return the favor, and will die. Then people were caused to name the place the port of O. They proceeded and arrived in the country of Kii, at Mt. Kama, and Itsuse no Mikoto died on the march. They buried him at Mt. Kama.
Sixth month. On the 23rd day, the army arrived at the village of Nakusa. Then they put to death the person Nakusatobe. (Tobe is read to-be, 妬鼙). Then they passed through Sano and arrived in the village of Kumamiwa (Kumano no Miwa no Mura), and climbed the stone shield of heaven. Leading the army they gradually proceeded. Within the ocean there suddenly arose a violent wind, and the Emperor’s boat floated off. Then Inahi no Mikoto sighed, saying “Alas! My ancestors are of the heavenly gods, but my mother’s side is descended from the gods of the sea. Why did I meet trouble on land, only to again have troubles at sea?” Then unsheathing his sword he thrust it into the ocean and it changed into the god Saimochi. Then Mikeirino no Mikoto said with disgust, “My mother and aunt are also of the sea gods. Why do they cause the waves to rise and try to drown me?” Then stepping on the waves as ears of grain, he went to the country of Tokoyo.
Then the Emperor alone, with the crown prince Tetogemimi no Mikoto, led the army’s advance, and they arrived at Arasaka in the country of Kumano. It is also called Nishiki no Ura. They put to death Nishiki Tobe. At that time the god vomited poisonous gas, and the people were all made diseased. Therefore, the Emperor’s army could not move. At that time there was a man called Kumano Takakuraji. That night in a dream, the Great Goddess Amaterasu ordered the god Takemikazuchi saying, “From the central reed plain country I still hears the resonance of fighting noise.” (Fighting noise is read sa-ya-ge-ri-na-ri, 左揶霓利奈離). “You should return and conquer it.”
Takemikazuchi replied, “Even if I don’t go, if we put down my sword of pacification, the country will naturally be put in order.”
Amaterasu no Ohokami said, “OK.” (OK is read u-be-na-ri, 宇毎那利).
At that time the god Takemikazuchi said to Takakura, “My sword is called Futsunomitama. (Futsunomitama is read fu-tsu-no-mi-ta-ma, 赴屠能瀰哆磨). Now I will place it in the back of your storage cellar. You should take it and give it to the heavenly grandchild.”
Takakura said “Yes, yes” and then woke up. The next morning, according to the instructions in the dream, he opened the storehouse and looked inside, and there a sword had fallen and was standing on its hilt on the storehouse floor. Accordingly he took it and gave it to the Emperor. At that time, the Emperor was deep in sleep. Then suddenly he awoke and said, “Why did I sleep so long?” When he asked this, the poisoned soldiers completely awoke.
Hi no Omi no Mikoto is Pronounced Michi no Omi
Accordingly the Emperor led the army and wanted to enter the central land. However, the mountains were steep, and the lack of a road made it difficult to proceed or go back. So they were in a state of disorder, and did not know where to step. That night, the Emperor had a dream and was instructed by the great goddess Amaterasu, who said “I will send you Yatagarasu, and he should guide you through the land.” Then Yatagarasu flew down from the sky.
The Emperor said, “This crow’s coming is just like in my dream. Wonderful! My ancestor the great goddess Amaterasu wants to help me in building this realm.”
Then, the distant ancestor of the Otomo, Hi no Omi no Mikoto, led their great coming and directed the army, treading the mountains and making the route clear, seeking and heading towards the crow, watching and pursuing it. So they came to the district of Uda no Shimotsu. Their coming caused this place to be renamed the village of Uda no Ukachi. (This is read Ukachi no Mura, 于介知能務羅). Then the Emperor praised Hi no Omi no Mikoto, saying, “You are loyal and brave, thereby you could guide us successfully. Henceforth you will be called Michi no Omi.
Treachery of E-Ukashi and Chieftains of Yoshino
Autumn, eighth month. On the second day, the Emperor summoned E-ukashi and Oto-ukashi. (Ukashi is read Ukashi, 宇介志). These two people were made the Hitogo no kami of the country of Uda. (Hitogo no kami is read hi-to-go-no-ka-mi, 比鄧誤廼伽瀰). At that time, E-ukashi did not come, but Oto-ukashi came. Paying respects at the army gate, he said, “Minister E-ukashi is planning to revolt. When he heard the heavenly grandchild had come, he raised troops to attack, but seeing the Emperor’s force, he knew he would be no match directly and has soldiers placed in ambush, and made a new palace with fall-hole traps in it, and wants to invite you to a party and make trouble there. I want you to know of this deceit and prepare for it well. Then the Emperor dispatched Michi no Omi no Mikoto to find proof of this revolt.
Then Michi no Omi no Mikoto knew the villian’s heart was evil and was filled with rage, and he erupted “Wretch! As for the building you have made, should go inside yourself! (Ore is read o-re, 飫例). Then he drew his sword and bow and chased him inside. E-ukashi had sinned before heaven, and had no excuse. He stepped in his own trap and fell to his death. Then Michi no Omi took the body and decapitated it. The blood that flowed out was ankle high. Therefore this place is called Uda no Chihara.
Then Oto-Ukashi made a great preparation of beef and alcohol to relieve the army’s weariness. The emperor distributed them out to the army and then read a poem. (Utayomi is read u-ta-yo-mi, 宇哆預瀰).
“blah blah, blah blah blah blah.”
This is called the Kumeuta. In the present, within the palace when this song is sung, the distance at which the hands are spread apart, as well as the loudness of the voice, remain with us from the old way of dancing it.
Afterwards, the Emperor wanted check out the land of Yoshino and led a lightly armed detachment of troops out of the village of Uda no Ukachi. When they arrived in Yoshino, there was one man who was coming out of a well who had a brightly shining tail. The Emperor asked him, saying, “Who are you?”
“He replied, I am one of this country’s gods. I am called Ihika.” He is the first ancestor of the chieftains of Yoshino. Proceeding a little further, there was a another man with a tail who was breaking stones.
The Emperor asked him, “Who are you?”
He replied, “I am the child of Iwaoshiwaku.” (This is read o-shi-wa-ku, 飫時和句). He is the first ancestor of the Kuzura of Yoshino.
They followed the river going west and there was a man catching fish with a yana. (Yana is read ya-na, 揶奈). The Emperor asked him and he replied, “I am the child of Niemotsu.” (Niemotsu is read ni-e-mo-tsu, 珥倍毛菟). He is the first ancestor of the Ukaira of Ata.
The Emperor's Divine Dream
Ninth month. On the fifth day, the Emperor climbed to the peak of Mt. Takakura in Uda and looked out upon the land. He saw 80 evildoers above the hill of Kunimi, (takeru is read ta-ke-ru, 多稽屢), and there was at Mesaka [women's hill] a female army [a small force], and at Osaka [men's hill] a male army [a large force], and at Sumisaka they had made a fire. This is why these hills got these names. And also the army of Eshiki filled the land of the village of Iware. (Shi is read shi, 志). The bandits places were all damaged, so the roads were blocked and there was no way through.
The Emperor hated it, and that night prayed and slept. In his dream a god of heaven instructed him, saying, “Take the dirt from within the shrine of the heavenly Mt. Kagu. (Kaguyama is read ka-gu-ya-ma, 介遇夜摩). With this make 80 heavenly platters. (Hiraka is read hi-ra-ka, [田比]邏介). Also make holy jars, and make offering to the gods of heaven. (Itsuhe is read i-tsu-he, 怡途背). Also practice divination. Do this and the bandits will naturally be dissolved. (Itsunokashiri is read i-tsu-no-ka-shi-ri, 怡途能伽辞離).” The Emperor gratefully received the instructions from this dream and prepared to carry them out.
Then Oto-ukashi came again to the emperor, saying “In the land of Yamato, in the village of Shiki, there are 80 evildoers, and in the village of Takaohari, also know as the village of Kazuraki, there are 80 akagane evildoers. They all intent to fight with the Emperor, and that makes me worry about you. You should now take planted earth from the heavenly Mt. Kagu and make 80 jars and offer them to the gods of heaven and earth. Afterwards if we attack the villains they will easily be scattered.”
The Emperor had already believed his dream to be good fortune, but at the words of Oto Ukashi he was even more pleased. Then he made Shiinetsuhiko wear ragged clothes and a grass hat to disguise him as an old man, and he made Oto Ukashi wear a grain sifter to disguise him as an old woman, and then he ordered them, saying, “You two must go to the heavenly Mt. Kagu and secretly take the dirt from the peak, and then come back here. This success or failure of this endeavor [of unification] depends on you. Take it seriously!”
The Emperor Performs Divination
At that time the enemy soldiers filled the roads, and it was difficult for them to go forth or come back. Then Shiinetsuhiko said, “Should the Emperor be able to unite the country, the road will open naturally and we can go through. If it is not possible, then the bandits will get us.” Saying they went forth, and the group of villains, seeing the two of them, laughed loudly, saying, “Filthy old geezers!” (read a-na-mi-ni-ku, 鞅奈瀰儞句) and parted so that the two could pass. They got to the mountain, took the dirt, and returned.
The Emperor was greatly pleased and taking this dirt made 80 heavenly platters and jars (read ta-ku-ji-ri, 多衢餌離) and then climbed to the headwaters of the Niu river and used them in offering to the heavenly gods. Then at Asabara by the Uda river, the water foamed as the curse took effect. Then the Emperor prayed again, saying, “I now will take these 80 platters and make candy without using any water. If I succeed, then I will certainly conquer and unify this land.” Then he made candy.
The candy formed naturally. Again, he prayed, saying, “I will now take the heavenly jars and sink them in the Niu river. If fish both large and small swim drunkenly in its flow, like the fallen leaves of a Maki tree floating in the current, (Maki is read ma-ki, 磨紀), then I will certainly establish this country; if they do not, then I will end in failure.” When he sank the jars in the river, the mouths faced down. From that side fish all floated out and came to the surface of the water gasping. Shiinetsuhiko, who was attending on the Emperor, saw this. The Emperor was greatly pleased and loosed a branch of a 500-branced Masaka tree that was above the Niu river and worshiped the myriad gods. There this began putting holy jars.
Then the Emperor ordered Michi no Omi no Mikoto, saying, “Now I am to become the heir (read u-tsu-shi-i-ha-hi, 于図詩怡破[田比]) of Takami Musubi no Mikoto. You are in charge of the ceremony, and I confer on you the name Itsuhime. We’ll call the ceremonial jars Itsube, the fire Itsu no Kagutsuchi, the water Itsu no Mitsuha no Me, (read mi-tsu-ha-no-me, 瀰菟破廼迷), the food Itsu no Ukano me (read u-ka-no-me, 于伽能迷), the firewood Itsu no Yamatsuchi, and the grass Itsu no Nozuchi.
The Emperor's Force Takes Kunimi Hill
Winter, tenth month. On the first day, the Emperor tasted the food from the Izube and ordered the troops to move. First they attacked the 80 villians of Kunimi hill, and they broke through and killed them. At this time, the Emperor’s will was one of certain victory. Thus he sang,
“blah blah blah blah blah”
In the song’s meaning, the large rock is akin to Kunimi hill.
However, the remaining troops were still in the vicinity, and their intentions were difficult to grasp. So the Emperor reflected and ordered Michi no Omi no Mikoto, saying“You should lead the soldiers in making a large building in the village of Oshisaka and set up a big party, then invite the villains and kill them.” So Michi no Omi no Mikoto accordingly secretly planned and dug a building in Oshisaka, and selected his fiercest soldiers and set them inside. In secret he revealed to them, “After taking wine, I will cause them to sing. When you all hear my song, suddenly kill them!” They all sat and had the wine brought out. The bandits didn’t know about the private, secret plan and carelessly got drunk. Then Michi no Omi no Mikoto stood up and sang,
“blah blah blah”
At that time the army heard the song and drew their swords, and all at once killed the enemy, and not one survived. The Emperor’s army was greatly pleased and looked toward heaven and laughed. This caused them to sing,
“blah blah blah”
In the present, when the Kumebe laugh after singing, it is because of this connection. Then they sang again,
“blah blah blah”
These songs were all sang at orders, not just sang freely or by chance.
The Emperor's Force Takes Sumisaka
Then the Emperor said, “Victory in war does not belong to one man: that is the way of a good general. Now these brigands have been destroyed, but there are still ten times as many just the same remaining. Their information is not easily known. Why should we linger in one place, for we will not be able to respond.” Then he led the army to another place.
Eleventh month. On the seventh day, the Emperor led a great force to attack Shikihiko. First he dispatched an emissary to beckon Enoshiki. However, Enoshiki would not be ruled. So the Emperor again dispatched Yatagarasu, and the crow arrived and sang, “The child of heavenly gods invites you, c’mon, c’mon!” Wa is the sound wa, 倭.
Enoshiki said angrily,”Just when I heard the god Ame no Osu come and make a fuss, now a crow is uttering such an obnoxious cry?” Osu is read o-su, 飫蒭. Then he drew his bow and shot at it, and the crow fled.
Next the crow came to the house of Otoshiki and said, “The child of heavenly gods invites you, go, go.” At that time Otoshiki said with deep fear, “ When I heard that the god Ame no Osu was coming, from morning to night I was filled with fear. Well cried, crow, well cried indeed!” Then he prepared eight leaf platters and fed it. Leaf platter is read hi-ra-de, [田比]羅耐. Thus he went to the Emperor as the crow requested and reported, “My older brother Eshiki, when he heard of the coming of the heavenly child, raised 80 brigands, armed his soldiers, and decided on war. Quickly think of a plan!”
The Emperor convened his generals and asked them, “Now Eshiki has planned a rebellion. I summoned him and he did not come. What shall we do?”
They all said, “Eshiki is a true villian. You should first send his younger brother to enlighten him and persuade Ekuraji and Otokuraji as well, and if this does not change their demeanor, then afterwards it will not be too late to use military force. Kuraji is read ku-ra-ji, 衢羅餌. So he made Eshiki go, to see how it would go over.
Then Otoshiki and others were still maintaining their foolishness and would not be convinced. At that time Shiinetsuhiko made a plan, saying, “Now we should first send our weaker army coming out of Oshisaka. The brigands will see it and certainly send a strong force to meet it. We accordingly will dispatch a vast force directly to Sumisaka, take the waters of the Uda river and quench the fires, and strike out on them when they are not ready. Accordingly they will certainly be defeated.
The Emperor approved the plan and sent out a his weaker force. The brigands thought it a great force and fought back with all they had. Previously, as the Emperor’s army attacked certainly seized, fought and certainly won, so all the soldiers were extremely tired. Therefore to relieve them he sang a song:
“Blah blah blah”
Thereby the stronger force captured Sumisaka, and accordingly came quickly and broke through, and killed the brigand leader Eshiki and others.
Nigihayahi Descends from Heaven
Twelfth month. On the fourth day, the Emperor lead the troops to attack Nagasunehiko, and they fought but could not gain the victory. Then suddenly the heavens filled with shadow and rained ice, and there was a gold-colored bird that came down and perched upon the tip of the Emperor’s bow. This bird shone dazzlingly, like lightning. Therefore Nagasunehiko’s army was blinded and lost their way, and could not wage war. Nagasune village was originally named for a person, but the Emperor’s army gained victory because of a bird, so sometimes they call it Tobi no mura. Now this is called Tomi, this is a corruption.
Previously, at the battle of Kusae, Itsuse no Mikoto was shot with an arrow and buried, and the Emperor carried this though, and was constantly mourning. For this reason, he wanted to win this fight. Afterwards, he sang,
“blah blah blah”
Then he sang again,
“blah blah blah”
Then he ordered another attack and they broke through. These songs are all called Kume songs because of the people who sang them.
Then Nagasunebiko sent out a messenger to speak to the Emperor, saying, “A long time ago, a child of the heavenly gods rode a heavenly stone boat out of heaven and descended. He was called, Kushitamanigihayahi no Mikoto. Nigihayahi is read ni-gi-ha-ya-hi, 儞芸波椰卑. This god married my younger sister Mikashikiyahime, also called Nagasunebime, also called Tomiyabime. They had a child, called Umashimade no Mikoto. Umashimade is read u-ma-shi-ma-de, 于魔詩莽耐. Therefore, I serve Nigihayahi no Mikoto. But, how can there be two children of the heavenly gods? How can you claim to be the child of a heavenly god and steal away people’s lands? I say that you must surely be fake.”
The Emperor said, “There are many children of the heavenly gods. As for the one you claim to serve, if he is truly a child of the heavenly gods, there must be some object that is proof of it. Show me this!” Nagasunehiko then took one of Nigihayahi no Mikoto’s heavenly feathered arrows and his quiver, and presented them to the Emperor. The Emperor said, “These are not fake.” Then he showed his own heavenly feathered arrow and quiver to Nagasunehiko.
Nagasunehiko saw this heavenly proof and his bosom was filled with uneasiness. However his evil devices [war preparations] were already completed, and this aggressive spirit was not able to be quelled halfway, therefore he did not deviate from his misquided plans and would not alter his purpose. Nigihayahi no Mikoto originally knew the heavenly gods bore courtesy for only the heavenly grandchild, however. He looked on the character of Nagasunehiko and found him contrary and headstrong, and unable to teach him the boundary between heaven and human. So he killed him and took lead of his masses, and returned submissively. The Emperor, upon hearing that Nigihayahi had of his own accord come down from heaven and now proved his loyalty accordingly rewarded and favored him. He was the distant ancestor of the Mononobe clan.
The Emperor Pacifies the Realm
Year of the sheep (662), spring, second month. On the 20th day, the generals were ordered to train the soldiers. At this time in the country of Soho, in Hata no Okasaki, there was a person called Niikitobe. Okasaki is read wo-ka-sa-ki, 塢介佐棄. Also, in Sakamoto, in Wani, there was one called Kosenohafuri. Sakamoto is read sa-ka-mo-to, 瑳伽梅苔. And, in Hosomi, in Nagara no Okasaki, there was one called Inohafuri. The Tsuchigumo in these three places, relying on their martial power, did not attend on the court. The Emperor then dispatched a part of the army and had them put to death.
Then, there were Tsuchigumo in the village of Takaohari. These people had short bodies and long arms and legs like dwarves. The Emperor’s army tied nets of Kazura and threw them on them, attacking and killing them. This caused this village to be called Kazuraraki. The land of Iware’s original name was Katatachi (this is read Ka-ta-wi, 伽哆韋, also called Katatachi). The Emperor led them to defeat the bandits, and the great army gathered at this place. Thereby it was called Iware.
One explanation is, the Emperor of old went to eat some Itsuhe Omono, then went out with the army and conquered the lands to the west. At this time, he met the 80 bandits encamped in this place. Ihamiwi is i-ha-mi-wi, 怡波濔萎. In the end there was a big fight, and the Emperor’s force triumphed. Therefore this place is called the village of Iware. The place where the Emperor’s troops raised their war voices is called Takeda, and the place he built his castle called Kita, and the place where the bandits fought and died, where there corpses piled up and they used their forearms for pillows called Tsuramakida.
The Emperor, in the previous year in autumn in the ninth month, when he secretly took dirt from the heavenly Mt. Kagu and made 80 platters, personally made reverence to the myriad gods, as he had now subjugated the realm. The place where he took the dirt is called Ha-ni-ya-su.
The Emperor Builds a Capitol and Takes a Wife
Third month. On the seventh day, the Emperor made an order saying, “From our eastern expedition it has now been six years. Relying on the terror of the heavens, the murderers and their followers have been massacred. Although the border lands are still not clean and the remaining enemies powerful, the central lands now do not even have dust in the wind. We should make a great capital, and plan it big. Now the world camps in ignorance, and the people’s hearts are primitive; they dwell in nests and holes, and this custom has gone without change. If a great man were to establish order, at that time justice would certainly follow. Even being cautious, if the people were to profit, what hindrance would there be to the sage’s creation? Also, we will cut down an expanse of the forest and manage a palace, and I will reverently attend upon my place and supress my subjects. To the heavens I will respond with the virtue of the country that was bestowed upon me, and below I will spread the spirit of the proper and nuturing august grandchild. Then afterwards combining the six directions I will open a capital, and the eight cords will become my dominion, how’s that? Look out upon the plain to the S.E of Mt. Unebi, (unebiyama is read u-ne-bi-ya-ma, 宇禰縻夜摩), is it not the center of the country? Let’s do it!” That month, in accordance with the order they began building a place.
Year of the Monkey (661), autumn, eighth month. On the 16th day, the Emperor was to take a formal wife, and looked broadly upon the daughters of the aristocrats. At that time, one person appealed to him saying: “Kotoshironushi no Kami and the daughter of Mishima no Mizokuimimi no Kami, Princess Tamakushi, to whom he is married, had a child, called Princess Himetataraisuzu no Mikoto. She is of surpassing beauty.” The Emperor was greatly pleased.
Ninth month. On the 24th day, the Emperor officially married Princess Himetataraisuzu no Mikoto.
Beginning of the Yamato Empire
Year of the Cock, 660, Spring, first month. On the first day, the Emperor was crowned at Kashihabara palace. This year was the first year of imperial rule. Next his wife was crowned Empress. She bore children called Kamuyai no Mikoto and Kamununakawamimi no Mikoto. Therefore, there is an old saying that goes, “In Unebi, in Kashihabara, the pillers of the palace were thick and ran deep, and the rafters rose to high plain of heaven, and the first Emperor to rule all under heaven was Emperor Kamuyamatoiwarebikohohodemi.
He was the first Emperor, and on the first day he established his rule, the distant ancestor of the Otomo Michi no Omi no Mikoto led a great many troops and received from the Emperor a secret plan, and was able, by means of soeuta and sakashimagoto, to drive off evil. This was the first time sakashimagoto was used, and its origin.
Second year spring second month. On the second day, the Emperor announced awards. He granted to Michi no Omi no Mikoto a residence to dwell in in the village of Tsukisaka with distinguished favor. Also he made the army dwell at Mt. Unebi, in the west bordering the river. These days it is called the village of Kume for this reason. Next he appointed Uduhiko as the Kuni no Miyatsuko of Yamato. Uzuhiko is read u-zu-hi-ko, 于砮[田比]故. Then he granted his younger brother the village of Takeda and appointed him the post of Takeda no Agata-nushi. He is the distant ancestor of the Moitorira of Uda. His younger brother’s castle was called Kurohaya, and he was also appointed to Agata-nushi. Tsurugine became the Kuni no Miyatsuko of Kazuraki. Also, the Yatagarasu received its award accordingly, and its descendants are the Agata-nushi of the Tonomori of Kazuno.
Death of the Emperor
Fourth year Sping second month. On the 23rd day, the Emperor ordered, “The spirits of my august ancestors naturally came down from heaven and their light aided me myself. Now, I have pacified the myriad barbarians and the interior of the country is without incident. We should make reverence to the heavenly gods and speak our wishes for filial piety. Then he raised places of worship on Mt. Torimiyama, and these high places are now called Uekonoshinhara and Shimokonoshinhara, and there he worshipped his august ancestors, the heaveny gods.
31st year, summer month, fourth month. On the first day, the Emperor was greatly pleased. This caused him to climb up the side of Kanema hill, and he went around wishing for the country’s status, saying, “Excellent! This country’s bounty!” Excellent is read a-na-ni-ya, 鞅奈珥夜. Though it is thin as the interior of a mulberry tree, it resembles the shape of a dragonfly.” Thereby it was first called Akitsushima.
Of old, Izanagi no Mikoto himself had named this country “Yamato, the Urayasu [peaceful] country, country of 1000 halbreds [well-equipped], the hotsuma country!.” That is read ho-tsu-ma-ku-ni, 袍図莽句儞. Also, the great god Ohihoki called it “the tamakaki country.”And then, Hikohayahi no Mikoto rode the stone boat of heaven flying in the sky and looked down at the land below. Therefore he was named it “the country of Yamato seen from the sky.”
42nd year, spring, 1st month. On the first day, the Emperor’s son, Kamusuzunakawamimi no Mikoto, became crown prince.
76th year, spring, third month. On some day, the Emperor died at Kashihabara palace. At that time he was 127 years old. The next year in autumn, ninth month, on the first day, he was buried at Mt. Unebi on the north-eastern slope.