Scroll 30 - Empress Jito

Command of Court Administration


Empress Jito was called Imperial Princess Uno no Sarara when she was a child. She was the second daughter of Emperor Tenji. Her mother was called Ochi no Iratsume (she was also called Minotsuko no Iratsume). The Empress was both deep and broad-minded. In the third year of Empress Saimei, she became the consort of Emperor Temmu. Though being the daughter of an Emperor, she also loved social courtesies and had the virtues of a mother.
In the first year of Tenji, Empress Jito gave birth to Imperial Prince Kusakabe in Otsu Palace. In the tenth year, tenth month [of Tenchi], she followed Emperor Temmu, who was going into the priesthood, to Yoshino, to avoid the suspicions of the court. That matter is recorded in the record of Emperor Tenji.
In the first year of Temmu, summer, sixth month, she followed Emperor Temmu and escaped to the east country, and spoke to the soldiers and assembled them, and formulated plans, stationing tens of thousands of those who did not fear death at strategic locations. In autumn, in the seventh month, the generals of Mino and the brave men of Yamato put to death Imperial Prince Otomo and sent his head to Fuwa Palace.
In the second year of Temmu, Jito became the Empress of Emperor Temmu. From the beginning of his reign until the present, she consistently assisted the Emperor in settling the realm. Always attending at his side, her words supported him in many ways concerning matters of administration.
First year of Shucho, ninth month. On the ninth day, Emperor Temmu died. The Empress attended the court and ruled without official accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne.

Rebellion of Prince Otsu


Winter, tenth month. On the second day, the rebellion plotted by Imperial Prince Otsu was discovered. Imperial Prince Otsu was captured along with those he had deceived, including Jikiko-shi Yakuchi no Ason Otokashi, Lower Shosen Iki no Muraji Hakatoko, Greater Servant Nakatomi no Ason Omimaro, Kose no Ason no Omi Tayasu, the Sillan monk Haengsim, and the palace servant Toki no Michitsukuri, in all over 30 people. On the third day of the month, Imperial Prince Otsu was sentenced to death at his home in Osata [Nara Prefecture, Sakurai City]. He was 24 years old. His consort Imperial Princess Yama no He messed her hair and went barefoot to sacrifice herself, following him in death. All who saw this cried.
Imperial Prince Otsu was the third son of Emperor Temmu. His figure was outstanding and his words were clear, and Emperor Tenji loved him. When he was older, he had a gift for studying and especially loved calligraphy. The flourishing of poetry began with Otsu.
On the 29th day, the Empress proclaimed, “Imperial prince Otsu plotted a rebellion. The deception of the people and palace servants could not be stopped. Now Imperial Prince Otsu is dead, and while those who followed him deserve the same, they shall all be forgiven. However, Toki no Michitsukuri shall be banished to Izu.” Then she added, “The Sillan monk Haengsim plotted a rebellion with Imperial Prince Otsu, but I will not endure any additional punishment of him. Let him be moved to the temple in the country of Hida.”
11th month. On the 16th day. Imperial Princess Oku, who had served in the worship of the god at Ise, returned to the capital. On the 17th day, there was an earthquake.
12th month. On the 19th day, a kagirinaki okami was held at five temples for Emperor Tenmu: Daikan Temple, Asuka Temple, Kawahara Temple, Oharida-Toyura Temple, and Sakata Temple. On the 26th day, the Empress gave cloth and silk of differing values to the people in the capital who were lonely or aged.
Intercalary 12th month. The Viceroy of Tsukushi presented the Empress with male and female commoners from the three countries of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, as well as 62 monks and nuns.
That year, a snake and a dog had intercourse, and suddenly died together.

Temporary Burial of Emperor Temmu


First year, spring, first month. On the second day, the crown prince led the upper ministers and other public servants to the temporary burial palace and they mourned. Court Speaker Fuse no Ason Minushi said a eulogy according to ceremony. When the eulogy had finished the people all mourned. Then the Head Steward Ki no Ason Mahito presented the burial articles. When that had finished, the cooks and ladies in waiting mourned. The Bureau of Music performed music. On the fifth day, the crown prince led the upper ministers and other public servants to the temporary burial palace and they mourned. The people followed them and mourned as well. On the 15th day, the Empress presented rough silk and silk to those in the capital who were over the age of 80, sick, or too poor to support themselves, each receiving differing amounts. On the 19th day, the messengers Jikiko-shi Tanaka no Ason Norimaro and Tsuidai-ni Karita were sent to Silla to report the death of the Emperor.
Third month. On the 15th day, 56 people from Goguryeo who had naturalized were made to live in the country of Hitachi and given rice fields such that they could live in stability. On the 20th day. A wreath was presented at the temporary burial palace, called a mikage. That day, Tajihi no Mahito Maro said a eulogy and performed the ceremony rites. On the 22nd day, 14 Sillans who had naturalized were made to live in the country of Shimotsukeno and given rice fields so that they could live in stability.
Summer, fourth month. On the tenth day. The Viceroy of Tsukushi presented the Emperor with 22 men and women of Silla who had naturalized, including common people, monks and nuns. They were made to live in the country of Musashi and given rice fields so that they could live in stability.
Fifth month. On the 22nd day, the crown prince led the upper ministers and other public servants in mourning at the temporary burial palace. Then the chiefs of the Hayahito of Osumi and Ata, followed by their subjects, came forth and said eulogies.
Sixth month. On the 28th day, criminals were pardoned.
Autumn, seventh month. On the second day, the Empress proclaimed, “Interest may not be collected on debts taken since the year 685. If the case of indentured servants, the interest may not be added to their burden.” On the ninth day, the Empress rewarded 337 of the chiefs of the Hayahito of Osumi and Ata in differing amounts.
Eighth month. On the fifth day, offerings of food were made at the temporary burial palace, and the fruits were called aokimono. On the sixth day, those in the capital who were old, both men and women, were assembled to the west of the bridge and mourned. On the 28th day, the Empress made Jikidai-shi Fujiwara no Ason Oshima and Jikidai-shi Kibumi no Muraji Otomo assemble 300 of the most virtuous monks at Asuka temple and present one priest’s robe to each. It was said, “These was knitted from Emperor Temmu’s clothes.” The Empress’ proclamation was so filled with bitterness it cannot be recorded here.

Funeral Mass for Emperor Tenmu


Ninth month. On the ninth day, a buddhist mass for the anniversary of the Emperor’s death was performed at all the temples in the captial. On the tenth day, a saie was held in the temporary burial palace. On the 23rd day, Silla dispatched Prince Kim Sangrim, Kyusan Kim Salmo, Kyusan Kim Insul, and Daisa So Yangsin to report the conditions of their administration and present tribute. The scholar-monk Chiryu had been attached to the Sillan messengers and came home. The Viceroy of Tsukushi told Sangrim and the others of the Emperor’s death. That day, Sangrim and the others all wore mourning clothes, and facing the east bowed three times and did koai three times.
Winter, tenth month. On the 22nd day. The crown prince led the upper ministers and other public servants together with all the governors, kuni no miyatsuko, and the people to begin building Ochi Tomb.
12th month. On the tenth day, Jikiko-san Michi no Mahito Tomi, by imperial order, had a feast for the messengers from Silla. The year was 687.
Second year, spring, first month. On the first day, the crown prince led the upper ministers and other public servants and they mourned at the temporary burial palace. On the second day, monks did koai at the temporary burial palace. On the eighth day, kagirinaki ogami was performed at Yakushi Temple. On the 23rd day, the Emperor’s death was officially proclaimed to Kim Sangrim and the other Sillans. They all did koai three times.
Second month. On the second day. The Viceroy of Tsukushi presented the Empress with the tribute of Silla: gold, silver, silk, cloth, pelts, copper, and iron, over ten varieties of items, and also Buddhist statues and various colorful silks, birds, and horses in over ten varieties, and also as gifts from Sangrim gold, silver, dyes, and various rare things in over 80 varieties. On the tenth day, a feast was held for Sangrim and the others in the foreign guest house in Tsukushi. They were given gifts of differing values. On the 16th day, the Empress proclaimed, “From now on, a saie will always be performed on the day of the anniversary of the Emperor’s death.” On the 29th day, Sangrim and the other Sillans went home.
Third month. On the 21st day, a wreath was presented at the temporary burial palace and Fujiwara no Ason Oshima said a eulogy.
Fifth month. On the eighth day. Kyosu Tokunari of Baekje was moved to the country of Kai.
Sixth month. On the 11th day, the Empress proclaimed, “By my order, prisoners in all the realm will have their punishments reduced by one grade. Those convicted of misdemeanors are pardoned. This year’s taxes are halved.”
Autumn, seventh month. On the 11th day. They desperately prayed for rain, as there was a drought. On the 20th day, The Baekje monk Dojang was ordered to pray for rain. Before midday had passed, it began to rain all over the realm.
Eighth month. On the tenth day, the first fruits were offered up in the temporary palace, and there was mourning. Then Otomo no Sukune Yasumaro said a eulogy. On the 11th day, the Empress ordered Jodai-shi Prince Ise to take charge of the funeral. On the 25th day, the King of Jeju-do dispatched Sahei Kara to come to the court with tribute items.
Ninth month. On the 23rd day, a feast was held for Sahei Kara of Jeju-do and his entourage at the foreign guest house in Tsukushi. They each given gifts of differing values.
Winter, 11th month. On the fourth day, the crown prince led the upper ministers, other public servants, and foreign guests to the temporary burial palace and they mourned. Then they paid their respects and the tatafushi dance was performed. The upper ministers each said when their ancestors had come into the service of the court and came forth to say eulogies. On the fifth day, over 190 Emishi carrying tribute on their backs and said eulogies. On the 11th day, Fuse no Ason Minushi and Otomo no Sukune Miyuki said eulogies. Jikiko-shi Tagima no Mahito Chitoko recited the line of succession of the imperial ancestors in a eulogy. Rites were performed, those in olden times "Hitsugi." Then they buried the late Emperor in Ochi Tomb.
12th month. On the 12th day, a feast was held for 213 Emishi men and women under the zelkova tree west of Asuka temple. They were given cap ranks and other objects of differing values.

Death of Prince Kusakabe


Third year, spring, first month. On the first day, the Empress addressed the people of all the countries in front of the hall. On the second day, the Bureau of Education gave the Empress 80 staves. On the third day, the Mudai-shi rank Emishi Maro and Kanaori, sons of Shiriko and castle guards from the country of Michi, Ukitama district, wished to shave their heads and become monks. The Empress proclaimed, “Maro and the others, though they are young, have still hearts and few desires, and are vegetarian and observe the precepts. As they wish, they may enter the priesthood and study.”
On the seventh day, the Empress held a banquet for the upper ministers and gave them robes and pants. On the eighth day, Tanaka no Ason Norimaro and the other messengers who had been sent to Silla came back. On the ninth day, the Empress proclaimed that the governor of Izumo send to the capital the foreigners who had drifted ashore due to the wind and waves. That day, she also gave the Emishi monk Doshin from the country of Koshi one Buddhist statue, a baptismal flag, one cup, one alms bowl, five variegated silks each five feet long, five bundles of silk, 10 hashi of cloth, 10 shovels, and one saddle. The Viceroy of Tsukushi Awata no Mahito Ason presented to the Empress 174 Hayahito, together with 50 tsune of cloth, six cow hides, and 50 deer hides. On the 15th day, The civil and military officials presented firewood to the Empress. On the 16th day, the Empress gave food to the public officials. On the 18th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 21st day, she left Yoshino Palace.
Second month. On the 13th day, the Empress proclaimed, “The guardsmen of Tsukushi who have fulfilled their yearly limit should be exchanged.” On the 26th day, Joko-shi Takeda no Okimi, Jikiko-shi Haji no Sukune Nemaro, Oyake no Ason Maro, Fujiwara no Ason Fuhito, Mudai-shi Tagima no Mahito Sakurai, Hozumi no Ason Yamamori, Nakatomi no Ason Omimaro, Kose no Ason Tayasu, and Omiwa no Ason Yasumaro were made judges.
Third month. On the 24th day, there was a great amnesty in the realm. Only those who would not be covered by a regular amnesty were not pardoned.
Summer, fourth month. On the eighth day, the Sillans who had naturalized were set in the country of Shimotsukeno. On the 13th day, the crown prince, Imperial Prince Kusakabe no Mikoto, died. On the 20th day, Silla dispatched Kyusan Kim Dodeung and others as funeral messengers for the late Emperor, together with the student monks Myeongchong and Gwanji. Also, they presented the Empress with a gilt bronze Amitabha statue, a gilt bronze Guan Yin Bodhisattva statue, a Mahasthamaprapta Bodhisattva statue, dyed silks, brocade, and damask silks. On the 22nd day, Prince Kasuga died. On the 27th day, the Empress proclaimed that those doing forced labor would be given four days of vacation each month.”
Fifth month. On the 22nd day, Haji no Sukune Nemaro was ordered to state the Emperor’s proclomation to Kyusan Kim Dodeung and the other funeral messengers from Silla. He said,“The ministers of the state, by order of the Empress, make this pronouncement. In the second year [of Jito], Tanaka no Ason Norimaro was dispatched to Silla, and told of the death of the late Emperor. At that time Silla said, ‘In the past, the one who delivered imperial proclamations to Silla was always of the rank of Sokan. Now we would again like that precedent to be observed.’ Therefore, Norimaro could not state the proclomation as he should have. If you speak of precedent, then in the distant past, when the Emperor of Naniwa Palace [Kotoku] died, Koe no Inamochi was dispatched to relay the day of the funeral, and Eisan Kim Chunchu received that imperial proclamation. Saying that one of the rank of Sokan should deliver the order differs from the past precedent. Also, when the Emperor of Omi Palace [Tenji] died, you dispatched Itsukitsusan Kim Salyu as the funeral messenger. Now you dispatch a funeral messenger of the rank Kyusan, and that differs from the past. Also in the past Silla said, ‘Our country is one that has served since the times of the ancient emperors of Yamato, lining up the ships and never letting the oars go dry.’ Now only one ship has come, going against precedent. Also they said, ‘Since the times of the ancient emperors of Yamato, we have served with a pure heart.’ However you have not been careful in your loyalty to your original charge. Thereby the pure heart is injured, and you instead resort to deceptive flattery. Therefore, your tribute and other goods will be sealed and returned. However the virtue that has spread wide since the days of our distant imperial ancestors will not end. Therefore put forth effort and be circumspect, for the grace of the court will be great for those who observe their charge and follow the law. You, Dodeung, and the others, receive this proclomation and state it to your king.”

Implementation of the Kiyomihara Code


Sixth month. On the first day. The Empress gave clothing to the Viceroy of Tsukushi. On the second day, Imperial prince Shiki, Jikiko-shi Sami no Ason Sukunamaro, Hata no Ason Mugobe (Mugobe is read mu-go-be, 牟吾閉), Gonko-shi Iyobe no Myuraji Umakai, Tsuki no Imiki Okina, Mudai-san Otomo no Sukune Teura, and Kose no Ason Tasuna were appointed commissioners for the choice of good words. On the 19th day, the Empress gave rice in different amounts to Xu Shouyan, Sa Hongke, and other people from Tang. On the 20th day, the Empress ordered the Viceroy of Tsukushi Awata no Mahito no Ason and others to give the student monks Myeongchong and Gwanji each 140 kin of silk to send to Buddhist masters and friends in Silla. On the 24th day, in O district in Tsukushi, a feast was held for the Sillan funeral messengers Kim Dodeung and the others, and they were given gifts in different amounts. On the 29th day, all the commisioners were given one section of the law recorded in 20 scrolls.
Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, at the request of an Emishi monk in Michi no Kuni, he was granted gilt bronze statues of Bhaisajyaguru and Guan Yin Bodhisattva, pots, precious curtains, alms bowls, incense burners, banners, and other things. That day, the Silla funeral messenger Kim Dodeung returned to his country. On the 15th day, the Empress ordered those charged with administration of the left and right divisions of the capital and all the governors to build places to learn archery. On the 20th day, the false servant of Kawachi country, Shibukawa district, called Kashiwahara no Hiromaro, was banished to Tosa. The rank of Tsuiko-san was granted to the guard that captured him, named Mibube no Muraji Tora. On the 23rd day, the Empress gave gifts to the Yatsurina Emishi from the country of Koshi in varying amounts (the na in Yatsurina is read na, 儺).
Autumn, eighth month. On the second day, the public officials assmbled in the Bureau of Divine Affairs and received an announcement about the gods of heaven and earth. On the fourth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 16th day, hunting and fishing were prohibited within 1000 steps of the sea of Muko in the counrty of Tsu, within 20,000 shiro of Nakino in Ate district in the country of Kii, or within 20,000 shiro of Muno in Iga district in the country of Iga. Also guardsmen were set at the sea of Takashi in the district of Oshima in the country of Kawachi. On the 17th day, the upper ministers received rewards, each in different amounts. On the 21st day, the Viceroy of Iyo, Tanaka no Ason Homaro, said, “The white swallow caught in the district of Miki in the country of Sanuki shall be released.” On the 23rd day, the Empress watched archery.
Intercalary eighth month. On the tenth day, the Empress proclaimed to all the governors, “This winter, household registers will be made. For that purpose, by the ninth month capture all wanders. Soldiers of each country shall be split into four groups, then one of them selected and taught warfare.” On the 27th day, Joko-shi Prince Kochi was made Viceroy of Tsukushi. He was given weapons and gifts. The rank of Jikiko-ichi was bestowed on Jikiko-san Ishikawa no Ason no Maro and Hikiko-shi Ishikawa no Ason Mushina in Tsukushi and they were sent certificates of rank. Then they inspected the new castle.
Winter, tenth month. On the 11th day, the Empress went to Takayasu Castle. On the 22nd day, Jikiko-shi Shimotsukeno no Ason Komaro reported that he wanted to free 600 of his slaves. His request was granted.
11th month. On the eighth day, Tsuiko-ni Takata no Obito Iwanari was praised for learning three types of weapons and received things at Ichinaka.
12th month. On the eighth day, pachisi was prohibited.

Accession of Empress Jito


Fourth year, spring, first month. On the first day, Mononobe no Maro no Ason stood up a giant shield. Head priest Nakatomi no Oshima no Ason read the prayer of amatsukami. When he finished, Inbe no Sukune Shikobuchi gave the divine symbols, sword and mirror, to the Empress. Then the Empress officially acceded to the throne. The upper ministers and other public servants lined up in a circle, bowed, and clapped their hands. On the second day, the upper ministers and other public servants bowed in the court as they had in the ceremony the previous day. Tajihi no Shima no Mahito and Fuse no Minushi no Ason said words of blessing. On the third day, a banquet was held in the imperial palace for the upper ministers, and they were given clothing. On the 15th day, the government offices submitted firewood. On the 17th day, there was a great pardon in the realm. Only those who were not covered by a regular pardon were not forgiven. The cap rank of those of status was increased by one grade. The widowed, lonely, and sick, as well as those too poor to live on their own, were given rice and made exempt from taxes and forced labor. On the 20th day, 100 investigators were set to work in the Justice Bureau. On the 23rd day, offerings were made to the gods of heaven and earth in the central countries, and their fiefs and fields were increased.
Second month. On the fifth day, the Empress went to the embankment at the resevoir in Waki no Kami to inspect the horses of the upper ministers. On the 11th day, the Sillan monk Jeongil, Kyusan Bae Joji, and other Sillans naturalized, 50 people in all. On the 17th day, the Emperor went to Yoshino palace. On the 19th day, there was a saie in the imperial palace. On the 25th day, 12 Sillans who had naturalized, including Kannama Homan, were made to live in the country of Musashi.
Third month. On the 20th day, the Empress gave the people in the capital and central countries who were over 80 rice from Shima Palace, 20 bales to each. Those with status were granted two hashi of cloth in addition to the rice.

Regulations for Court Clothing


Summer, fourth month. On the third day, the Empress dispatched a messenger to worship the gods Oimi in Hirose and Kaze in Tatsuta. On the seventh day, the Empress gave 5031 old men and women in the capital and central countries rice, 20 bales to each. On the 14th day, the Empress proclaimed, “The public officials and people in the central countries will be divided into nine ranks depending on the number of days they have worked. Those with rank will be counted for up to six years, and those without for up to seven years. Cap ranks will be given to those above fourth grade, according to the regulation of koshiryo, their aptitude, achievements, and the importance of their clan. The colors of court clothes will be, from the rank Jodai-ichi down to Ko-ni, dark purple, from Jodai-san down to Ko-shi, reddish purple. The eight Jiki ranks will be red, the eight Kon ranks dark green, the eight Mu ranks light green, the eight Tsui ranks dark navy, and the eight Shin ranks light blue. Separately those above the rank of Joko-ni will have one strip of damask silk, and from Jodai-san down to Jikiko-shi two strips of damask silk, and they are approved for various uses. Also, all will wear a belt of fine, thin silk and white pants, regardless of status.” Starting on the 22nd, they prayed for rain in many places, as there was a drought.
Fifth month. On the third day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. Tenth day. 21 men and women of Baekje naturalized. Starting on the 15th there was a lecture on ango in the imperial palace.
Sixth month. On the sixth day, the Empres went to Hatsuse. On the 25th day, the Empress summoned all those of rank to come and state their rank and age so it could be known.

Appointment of Prince Takechi


Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, the upper ministers and other public officials wore the new court clothing for the first time. On the third day, offerings were made for the gods of heaven and earth. On the fifth day, Imperial Prince Takechi was made Chancellor of the Realm. The rank of Shoko-san was bestowed on Tajihi no Shima Mahito and he was made Minister of the Left. Altogether the men of the eight ministries and all the government offices all moved to their new appointments. On the sixth day, the Viceroy of Tsukushi and governors all moved to their appointments. On the seventh day, the Empress proclaimed, “I order the upper ministers, other public officials, and all those with rank to wear the clothing of the court in their households from now on, and to come to court before the gates are opened.” (Maybe in the past they went to the gate of the palace wearing court clothing.) On the ninth day, the Empress proclaimed, “When on a seat in court, upon seeing an imperial prince one should do like always. Upon seeing a senior minister and prince, get up and stand in front of the hall. Upon seeing two princes, get off one’s seat and kneel.” On the 14th day, the Empress proclaimed, “When sitting in the court if you see un upper minister, you should move your seat and kneel.” That day, rough silk, thread, silk, and cloth was given 3,363 monks for ango from the seven temples. Seperately the crown prince bestowed these on 329 monks for ango from three temples. On the 18th day, the Empress dispatched a messenger to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta.
Eighth month. On the fourth day, the Emperor went to Yoshino Palace. On the 11th day, The Sillans who had naturalized were made to live in the country of Shimotsukeno.

Return of Otomobe no Hakama from Tang

Ninth month. On the first day, the Empress ordered all the governors, saying, “Make the household registers according to the guidelines of the law.” On the 11th day, the Empress said, “I am going to go to Kii. Therefore do not collect the rice and personal taxes from the capital this year.” On the 13th day, the Empress went to Kii. On the 23rd day, Chiso, Gitoku, and Jogan, student-monks who had gone to Tang, along with soldiers and Otomobe no Hakama from Kamitsuyame district in Tsukushi, returned to Tsukushi following the messenger from Silla Dainama Kim Gohun. On the 24th day, the Empress returned from Kii.
Winter, tenth month. On the fifth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the tenth day, Chiso and the other scholar-monks who had studied in Tang came to the capital. On the 15th day, the Empress dispatched messengers to order Prince Kochi, the Viceroy of Tsukushi, saying, “Throw a feast for the Sillan messengers Dainama Kim Gohun and the others, using the precedent of when the feast given for the messengers who came with the student Haji no Sukune Oi. Rewards and presents are to be given as written.” On the 22nd day, the Empress ordered Otomobe Haji from Kamitsuyame district in the country of Lower Michi in Tsukushi, saying, “In the seventh year of Emperess Saimei, in the fight to rescue Baekje, you were captured by the Tang army. Then in the third year of Emperor Tenji, Haji no Muraji Hodo, Hi no Muraji Okina, Tsukushi no Kimisatsuyama, and the son of Yuge no Muraji Ganho wanted to report the Tang plans that they had heard, but because they had no clothes or provisions, they were not able to do so. Then you told Haji no Hodo and the others, ‘I wish to return together with you to our court, but because we have no clothes or provisions, we cannot go. I want you to sell me into slavery, and then you can buy clothes and food.’ Hodo and the others followed your plan, and were able to come to the court, but you alone stayed in a foreign land for 30 years. I am overjoyed at your patriotism and true loyalty. Therefore I give you the rank of Mudai-shi, together with 5 bolts of rough silk, 11 ton of silk, 30 hashi of cloth, 1,000 bales of rice, and four cho of rice fields. These rice fields will be passed on to your great-grandchildren, and your three relations are exempt from tax and forced labor in recognition of your acheievement.” On the 29th day, Imperial Prince Takechi inspected the ground where Fujiwara Palace was to be built. The upper ministers and other public officials all followed him.
11th month. On the seventh day, the Empress rewarded the messenger Kim Gohun and the others in various degrees. On the 11th day, by imperial decree genkareki and gihoreki calendar systems were put in use for the first time.
12th month. On the third day, Kim Gohun and the other messengers who had come to see off the students from Tang returned to their country. On the 12th day, the Empress visited Yoshino Palace. On the 14th day, the Empress returned from Yoshino Palace. On the 19th day, the Empress visited Fujiwara and inspected the palace grounds. The upper ministers and other public officials followed her. On the 23th day, the Empress rewarded the upper ministers with various amounts of gifts.

Increase of Fiefs


Fifth year, spring, first month. On the first day, the Empress gave the imperial princes, upper ministers, imperial princesses, princesses, and the ladies in waiting ranks. On the seventh day, the Empress gave the upper ministers food and clothing. Shoko-shi and Prince of Baekje Seongwang, Jikidai-shi Onho, Ryogu, and Nanten were especially rewarded in different degrees. On the 13th day, the fiefs of some aristocrats were increased. Imperial Prince Takechi received an additional 2,000 households to what he had before, making 3,000 total households. Joko-ni Imperial Prince Hozumi recieved 500 households. Jodai-san Imperial Prince Kawashima received an additional 100 households, making his holdings 500 households in total. Shoko-san Minister of the Right Tajihi Shima no Mahito received an additional 300 households to what he had before, making 500 households in total. Shoko-shi and Prince of Baekje Seongwang received 100 households, making his holdings 200 households in total. Jikidai-ichi Fuse no Minushi no Ason and Otomo no Miyuki no Sukune each recieved 80 households, increasing their total holdings to 300 households. Other people besides these recieved increases in various amounts.
On the 14th day, the Empress proclaimed, “It has been 29 years since Jikiko-shi Tsukushi no Fubito Masaru was appointed scribe of the Viceroy of Tsukushi. He is loyal and pure, and does not dare to be derelect in his duties. Therefore I grant him a fief of 50 households, 15 bolts of rough silk, 25 ton of silk, 50 hashi of cloth, and 5,000 bales of rice. On the 16th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 23rd day, she came back from Yoshino Palace.
Second month. On the first day, the Empress declared to the upper ministers, “Ministers in the days of the former Emperor made Buddhist halls and sutra repositories, and observed muyori no imi every month, and the Emperor sometimes sent a servant to check on them. In my time, I will do the same. Therefore, exert yourselves in observing the Buddhist law.” That day, The Empress bestowed on a servants notices of rank.
Third month. On the third day, the Empress held a banquet for the upper ministers in the west building. On the fifth day, the Empress inspected the horses, both pulic and private, at Misono. On the 22nd day, the Empress proclaimed, “If a younger brother is sold by his older brother, he is classified as a freeman. If a child is sold by its parents, it is classified as a slave. If a person is indentured for their debts, they are also classified as a slave. A child, even if it is born of slaves, is classified as a freeman.”
Summer, fourth month. On the first day, the Empress proclaimed, “If the ancestors of a clan freed a slave and that slave is no longer included in their registers, then that family can not press suit saying that it is their slave.” The Empress also granted the great scholar Ue no Suguri Kudara 1,000 bales of rice from the state treasury to encouage his study. On the 11th day, the Empress dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 16th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 22nd day, she came back from Yoshino Palace.
Fifth month. On the 21st day, in praise of the acheivements of Junmumishi of Baekje during the Jinshin War, he was awarded the rank of Jikidai-san. He was also given rough silk and cloth.
Sixth month. In the capital and all the 40 countries it rained heavily. [The date is uncertain, perhaps fifth month 17th day.] The Empress proclaimed, “This summer's unsually heavy rain most certainly damaged the crops. In reflection, I think that this is due to some sadness in the court. I order the upper ministers and other public officials to abstain from alcohol and meat, train their heart and do kega. In the capital and the temples of the central countries the monks will chant sutras for five days for support.” It had rained from the fourth month until now. On the 20th day, there was a great amnesty in the realm. However, thieves were not freed.
Autumn, seventh month. On the third day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. That day, the Governor of Iyo, Tanaka no Ason Norimaro, gave the Emperor 8 koro of silver from Mt. Mima in the district of Uwa and one basket of ore. On the seventh day, A banquet was held for the upper ministers, and they were given court clothing. On the 12th day, the Empress came back from Yoshino Palace. On the 15th day, she dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta.
Eighth month. On the 13th day, the Empress ordered that the 18 clans (Omiwa, Sazakibe, Iso no Kami, Fujiwara, Ishikawa, Kose, Kashiwade, Kasuga, Kamitsukeno, Otomo, Ki, Heguri, Hata, Ahe, Saeki, Uneme, Hozumi, and Azumi) submit their ancestors’ burial records. On the 23rd day, the Empress dispatched messengers to worship the god Oimi in Tatsuta and the gods Suwa and Minuchi in Shinano.
Ninth month. On the fourth day, the Tang teachers of Chinese Xu Shouyan and Sa Hongke, as well as the teacher of Chinese characters Malsa Seonsin from Baekje were each given 20 koro of silver. On the ninth day. Jodai-san Imperial Prince Kawashima died. On the 23rd day, Jikidai-ni rank was given to Saeki no Sukune Ome along with burial articles.

Ground-breaking of Fujiwara Palace


Winter, tenth month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the eighth day, the Empress proclaimed, “For the maitenance of tombs of previous emperors, at least five households will be allocated. For other princes of acheivement, it will be three households. If that is not enough, people will be exempted from forced labor and exchanged every three years in that capacity.” On the 13th day, in both the central and outlying countries, an ikimono hanatsu was set up every 1,000 steps. That day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 20th day, the Empress came back from Yoshino Palace. On the 27th day, the Empress dispatched messengers to do the ground-breaking ceremony for the new palace.
11th month. On the first day, the feast of first fruits was held. Head Priest Nakatomi no Ason Oshima read the amatsukami prayer. On the 25th day, the Empress gave the upper ministers food and clothing. On the 28th day, the Empress held a feast for the upper ministers down to the scribes. They were all given different amounts of silk. On the 30th day, the Empress held a feast for the clergy, from the head priests down to the shrine workers, as well as for the those from the countries which had donated the first fruits, Harima and Inaba, from their governors and magistrates down to their people, and gave those people each different amounts of silk.
12th month. On the second day, the Empress gave the doctor Mudai-san Toku Jichin and the exorcists Mokso Jeongmu and Sadaek Mansu 20 koro of silver. On the eighth day, the Empress proclaimed, “The house land given to the Minister of the Right is four cho, and for ranks above Jikikou-ni two cho. Below Dai-san is one cho. For Gon or lower down to no rank, it is according to that household. For upper houses it is one cho, for middle ones half a cho, and for lower houses a quarter of a cho. Princes will follow the same precept.”

The Empress Travels to Ise


Sixth year, spring, first month. On the fourth day, the Empress increased the fief of Imperial Prince Takechi by 2,000 households, making 5,000 households when combined with his previous holdings. On the seventh day, the Empress held a feast for the upper ministers and gave them clothing. On the 12th day, the Empress inspected the road for the new palace. On the 16th day, she held a feast for all the upper ministers down to those of initial rank. On the 27th day, she went to Taka Palace. On the 28th day, she returned from Taka Palace.
Second month. On the 11th day, the Empress proclaimed to all the bureaucrats. “On the third day of the third month, I will go to Ise. Keep my intentions in mind, and prepare clothing for the trip.” The monks Hozo and Doki, professors of yin and yang, were given 20 koro of silver. On the 19th day, the Empress proclaimed to the Bureau of Justice that criminals who had committed small crimes should be freed. That day, the assistant to the court speaker Jikidai-ni Miwa no Ason Takechimaro warned agains the Empress going to Ise as it would interfere with the farming season.
Third month. On the third day, Joko-shi Prince Hirose, Jikiko-san Tagima no Mahito Chitoko, and Jikiko-shi Ki no Ason Yumihari were made her traveling guards. Then the assitant to the court speaker Omiwa no Ason no Omi Takechimaro took off his cap and raised it in the court, and warned, “The imperial carriage should not move during the farming season.” On the sixth day, the Empress did not follow this warning and went to Ise. On the 17th day, ranked individuals like the kuni no miyatsuko in Kamibe, Iga, Ise, and Shima where the Empress’ carriage passed through were exempted that year from taxes, as were cavalry and laborers who transported her baggage and the laborers who built the temporary palaces. Also there was a great amnesty in the realm. However, theives were not pardoned. On the 19th day, the Empress gave 50 bales of rice to the men and women who were over 80 years of age in Shima where the Empress passed through. On the 20th day, The Empress’ carriage returned to the palace. The messengers of all the places the Empress went were given things and music was performed. On the 29th day, the Empress proclaimed an exemption in Omi, Mino, Owari, Mikawa, and Totomi for the households of the riders who went with her, as well as the baggage carriers and the palace construction laborers, from that year’s tax. Then she proclaimed that because the realm was in poverty, all men would be given three bales of rice, and women two bales.
Summer, fourth month. On the second day, the Empress gave Otomo no Sukune Tomokuni the rank of Jikidai-ni along with burial articles. On the fifth day, the people who worked as trasnport laborers from the four central countries were exempted from taxes that year. On the 19th day, messengers were dispatched to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 21st day, the Empress gave everyone from the rank of Imperial Prince down to Shinko-shi different numbers of shovels from the great granary in Naniwa. On the 25th day, the Empress proclaimed, “Criminals punished with banishment are all to be pardoned.”
Fifth month. On the sixth day, when the Empress went to the temporary palace of Ago, Akoshi no Ama no Kawasemaro from Muro district in the country of Kii gave her seafood, and together with his brothers, their three households were given 10 years of tax and labor exemption. Also, the Empress exempted eight ship captains from that year’s tax. On the seventh day, The governor of Sagami gave the Empress two baby red crows, saying, “They were caught in the district of Miura.” On the 12th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 16th day, her carriage returned to the palace. On the 17th day, she dispatched upper ministers and court servants to worship the mountains and rivers and pray for rain. On the 20th day, the Empress gave Fumi no Imiki Chitoko the rank of Jikidai-ichi along with burial articles. On the 23rd day, the Empress dispatched Joko-shi Prince Naniwa to inspect the grounds for Fujiwara Palace. On the 26th day, the Empress dispatched messengers to make offerings to the great gods in four places: Ise, Yamato, Sumi no E, and Kii, and also to infom the gods of the new palace.
Intercalary fifth month. On the third day, there was a flood. Messengers were dispatched to go around the districts and countries and give relief to those who could not subside, and fishing and woodcutting were permitted in the lakes, mountains, and forests. The Empress proclaimed an order that the Golden Light Sutra be read in the capital and the central countries. On the fourth day, the monk Kanjo was given 14 bolts of rough silk, 30 ton of silk, and 50 hashi of cloth in praise for the white lead that he had made. On the 13th day, the great goddess of Ise said to the Empress, “This years tax and forced labor in the country of Ise have been exempted, however as for the 35 kin of red string collected in the my two districts, that burden should be released next year in exchange.” On the 15th day, the Empress proclaimed to Prince Kochi, Viceroy of Tsukushi, “Send monks to Osumi and Ata to spread the Buddhist teaching. Also, give me the Amitabha statue that Guo Shengcong, ambassador of Tang, made for Emperor Tenji.”
Sixth month. On the ninth day, the Empress ordered the heads of all the countries to pray to the mountains and rivers. On the 11th day, the Empress dispatched the upper ministers and court servants to the four central countries to pray for rain. On the 21st day, 80 labrorers were given rank, and praised for their hard work and diligence in constructing Ochi Tomb. On the 30th day, the Empress went to to inspect the ground for Fujiwara Palace.
Autumn, seventh month. On the second day, there was a great amnesty in the realm. However the ten abominations and thieves were not released. The Empress gave Fuse no Ason Shikofura, governor of Sagami, the assistant magistrate of Miura district (clan title and name absent), and Kashima no Omi Kusu who caught the red crows rank and presents, and also gave Miura district two years of tax and labor exemption. On the seventh day, the Empress held a banquet for the upper ministers. On the ninth day, she went to Yoshino Palace. On the 11th day, she dispatched messengers to worship at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 28th day, her carriage returned to the palace. That night, Mars and Jupiter, in a moment's time shined and then grew dark, and drew near to each other then separated four times.
Eighth month. On the third day, there was pardon of crimes. On the 17th day, the Empress went to the country retreat of Imperial Princess Asuka. That day, she returned to the palace.

Inspection of Rice Fields


Ninth month. On the ninth day, the Empress dispatched messengers involved with the distribution of rice fields to the four central countries. On the 14th day, the Bureau of Divine Affairs submitted to the Empress four scrolls of divine writing, nine keys, and one wooden stamp. On the 21st day, the governor of Ise submitted two auspicious rice grains, and the governor of Echizen submitted a white moth. 26th day. The Empress proclaimed, “Because a white moth was caught in the district of Tsunega, the god of Kehi's fief will be increased by 20 households and combined with what it was before.”
Winter, tenth month. On the 11th day, the Empress granted Yamada no Fubito Mikata the rank of Muko-shi. He had previously become a monk and studied in Silla. On the 12th day, the Empress went to Yoshino. On the 19th day, her carriage returned from Yoshino.
11th month. On the eighth day, Silla dispatched Kyusan Bak Eokdeok and Kim Simsal to submit tribute. The Empress gave Jikiko-shi Okinaga no Mahito Oyu and Mudai-ni Kochi no Imiki Tsura, messengers who had been dispatched to Silla, different amounts of gifts. On the 11th day, the Empress gave the teachers of Chinese Xu Shouyan and Sa Hongke four cho of rice fields and people. On the 24th day, upper ministers were dispatched to present the tribute of the Silla to the five gods at Ise, Sumi no E, Kii, Yamato, and Unatari.
Seventh year, spring, first month. On the second day, the rank of Joko-ichi was given to Imperial Prince Takechi, and the rank of Joko-ni to Imperial Princes Naga and Yuge. That day, The Empress ordered the people of the realm to wear yellow, and the slaves to wear black. On the seventh day, the Empress had a feast for the upper ministers. On the 13th day, the Empress gave the people of rank above the age of 80 in the capital and central countries one coverlet, two bolts of rough silk, two ton of silk, and four hashi of cloth. On the 15th day, the rank of Shoko-san was given to the Prince of Kudara Seongwang along with burial articles. On the 16th day, the men and women of the capital over the age of 80 and those who were impoverished were given cloth in various amounts. Also, the Funase monk Hokyo was given three cho of rice fields. That day, the men of Aya did the ararehashiri dance.
Second month. On the third day, Silla dispatched Sasan Kim Gangnam, Kannama Kim Yangwon, and others to come to the court and announce the death of their king. On the tenth day, the Empress ordered Prince Kinunui, head of palace construction, to collect [materials for the palace] from where bodies had been dug up. On the 30th day, Moja, Morye, and some 30 Sillans who drifted ashore were handed over to Eokdeok.
Third month. On the fifth day, there was a solar eclipse. On the fifth day, the Emperess gave Professor Kongo-ni Ue no Suguri Kudara a fief of 30 households. He specialized in Confucianism. On the sixth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 11th day, she gave Jikidai-ni Fujiwara no Ason Oshima burial articles. On the 13th day, the Empress came back from Yoshino Palace. On the 16th day, the Empress gave Jikiko-shi Okinaga no Mahito Oyu, messengers who had been dispatched to Silla, as well as Gondai-ni Otomo no Sukune Kogimi and the scolar-monks Bentsu and Jinei rough silk, silk, and cloth in differing amounts. Also she sent burial articles to the Sillan king. On the 17th day, the Empress ordered the realm to exert itself in cultivating mulberry trees, hemp, pears, chestnuts, turnips, and other herbs to supplement the five grains.
Summer, fourth month. On the 17th day, the Empress dispatched upper ministers and court servants to make observances to the gods and pray for rain. Also, she dispatched messengers to pray to the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 22nd day, the Empress proclaimed, “Otomo no Ohito, assitant to the Granary Commisioner, has commited the crime of excessive profit and will be demoted two ranks and stripped of his appointment. The clerks Okisome no Oku and Unono Otomo both commited the crime of excessive profit as well and they will be demoted by one rank and stripped of their appointments. The auditor Kose no Oji, though he did not take anything himself, knew about the theft. Therefore he will be demoted two ranks and stripped of his appointment. However, Okisome nio Oku did great deeds in the Jinshin War, therefore he will be pardoned. However the things he took will be collected in accordance with the law.”
Fifth month. On the first day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the seventh day, the Empress left Yoshino Palace. On the 15th day, kagirinaki ogami was performed in the imperial palace.
Sixth month. On the first day, the Empress proclaimed that Bokga, a monk from Goguryeo, would return to the laity. On the fourth day, the rank of Jikiko-shi was granted to Hiketa no Ason Hirome, Mori no Kimi Karita, Kose no Ason Maro, Fujiwara no Asno Omimaro, Kose no Ason Tayasu, Tajihi no Mahito Ikemori, and Ki no Ason Maro, seven men in all.
Autumn, seventh month. On the seventh day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 12th day, she dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi in Hirose and Kaze in Tatsuta. On the 14th day, she dispatched upper ministers and court servants to make observances to the gods and pray for rain. That day, she came back from Yoshino Palace.
Eighth month. On the first day, the Empress went to the ground where Fujiwara Palace was being built. On the 17th day, she went to Yoshino Palace. On the 21st day, her carriage returned to the palace.
Ninth month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the fifth day, the Empress went to Tamu peak. On the sixth day, her carriage returned to the palace. On the 10th day, kagirinaki ogami was performed in the imperial palace for Emperor Temmu. Prisoners were all released. On the 16th day, the rank of Jikiko-san was given to Kaya no Imiki Konoma along with burial articles in praise of his accomplishments during the Jinshin War.
Winter, tenth month. On the second day, the Empress proclaimed, “This year, the weapons and armor of everyone from the imperial princes down to the rank of Shin will be inspected. Cap ranks from Jo to Jiki will prepare on set of armor, one long sword, one bow, one set of arrows, one elbow pad, and one saddled horse. From Kon to Shin ranks, they will prepare one long sword, one bow, one set of arrows, and one elbow pad. All shall prepare themselves like this.” Starting on the 23rd day, the Ninno Sutra was read for four days in all the countries.
11th month. On the fifth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the seventh day, she gave the princes and sahei of Jeju-do gifts of differing values. On the tenth day, her carriage returned to the palace. On the 14th day, she dispatched the monks Hoin, Zeno, and Shingi to the distrcit of Yasu district in the country of Omi to try drinking from the spring of Kosake. On the 23rd day, Jikikdai-shi was granted to Jikiko-shi Hiketa no Ason Samaro and he was given a fief of 50 households.
12th month. On the 21st day, the Empress dispatched professors of strategy to teach war in the myraid countries.

The Capital Relocates to Fujiwara


Eighth year, spring, first month. On the second day, the rank of Shoko-shi was granted to Jikidai-ichi Fuse no Ason Minushi and Otomo no Sukune Miyuki, and their fiefs were increased by 200 households so that altogether they had 500 households each. Both were made leaders of their clans. On the seventh day, the Empress held a feast for the upper ministers. On the 15th day, she received firewood. On the 16th day, the Empress held a feast for the other public officials. On the 17th day, men of Aya performed the dance of ararehashiri for the Empress and those above fifth rank did archery. On the 18th day, those below sixth rank did archery. After four days it ended. On the 19th day, people from Tang did the ararehashiri dance for the Empress. On the 21st day, the Empress went to Fujiwara Palace. That day, she returned to the palace. On the 23rd day, The rank of Konko-shi was given to seven men from Tang and 2 Mishihase. On the 24th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace.
Third month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the second day. Jikiko-shi Oyake no Ason Maro, Kondai-ni Utena no Imiki Yashima, and Kibumi no Muraji Honjitsu were made coin-making commisioners. On the 11th day, the Empress proclaimed, “When people without rank are made magistrates, if they are a head magistrate they will be granted the rank of Shinko-ni, and if they are the vice magistrate they will be granted the rank of Shinko-san.”
On the 16th day, the Empress proclaimed, “In the seventh year, 693, the spring of Kosake came forth in Tsugayama, in the district of Yasu, in the country of Omi. Many sick people have gone to Yasu Temple and have been cured. Therefore, four cho of rice fields and 60 hashi of cloth will be rewarded it, and Yasu district will be exempt from this years tax and forced labor, and all from its governors down to its clerks will have their rank advanced one grade, and the two women who first discovered the spring, Kadono no Hatsuki and Kudara no Tsura, will each be given two bolts of rough silk, 10 hashi of cloth, and 10 shovels.” On the 22nd day, offerings were made to the gods in all the shrines. On the 23rd day, 160 people from the Bureau of Divine Affairs, from head priests down to priests, were given varying amounts of rough silk and cloth.
Summer, fourth month. On the fifth day, the rank of Jodai-shi was given to Prince Kochi, Viceroy of Tsukushi, along with burial articles. On the seventh day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 13th day, the Empress dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 14th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace. On the 17th day, the risshi Doko was given burial goods.
Fifth month. On the sixth day, the Empress held a feast for the upper ministers in the imperial palace. On the 11th day, the 100 sections of the Golden Light Sutra were sent to all the countries. It was dictated that it must be read every year on the eighth day of the first month. Cloth for this was provided in full to all the country administrators.
Sixth month. On the eighth day, a white mountain bird from Sahara district in the country of Kawachi was given to the Empress. A grade of rank and gifts were given to both the head and assistant head of Sarara distrcit. The rank of Shinko-ni and gifts were given to Osakabe no Myakko Karakuni, who had captured it.
Autumn, seventh month. On the fourth day, the Empress dispatched inspectors to all the countries. On the 15th day, she dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta.
Eighth month. On the 17th day, 104 people went into the priesthood for Imperial Princess Asuka.
Ninth month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the fourth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 22nd day, Joko-shi Prince Mino was made Viceroy of Tsukushi.
Winter, tenth month. On the 20th day, the rank of Shindai-shi was given to Otohekunibe no Otohi, who captured a white bat in Araki district in the country of Hida, along with four bolts of rough silk and ten hashi of cloth. His household was completely exempted from tax and forced labor as long as he lived.
11th month. On the 26th day, there was an amnesty for all crimes including and below those whose punishment was beheading.
12th month. On the sixth day, the captial was moved to Fujiwara Palace. On the ninth day, public officials paid their respects at court. On the tenth day, the Empress gave everyone from the Imperial Princes down to the local magistrates rough silk, silk, and cloth in mounts. On the 12th day, a banquet was held for the upper ministers.
Ninth year, spring, first month. On the fifth day, the rank of Joko-shi was given to Imperial Prince Toneri. On the seventh day, the Empress feasted the upper ministers in the imperial palace. On the 15th day, firewood was presented to the Empress. On the 16th day, the Empress feasted the other public officials. Starting on the 17th day, archery was performed for four days.
Intercalaray second month. On the eighth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 15th day, her carriage returned from Yoshino.
Third month. On the second day, Silla dispatched Prince Kim Yangim, Fumyou Satsusan Bak Gangguk, and the Kannama Kim Juhan and Kim Chungseon to report matters of state administration. They also gave their tribute goods. On the 12th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 15th day, she left Yoshino Palace. On the 23rd day, she dispatched Muko-ni Fumi no Imiki Hakase and Shinko-san Shimo no Osa no Morota to Tanegashima to seek the whereabouts of people not yet under imperial rule.
Summer, fourth month. On the ninth day, the Empress dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 17th day, the rank of Jikiko-san was given to Komo no Ason Emishi along with burial articles. His orignal rank was Kondai-ichi. Jikidai-shi was given to Fumi no Imiki Akamaro along with burial articles. His original rank was Middle Daisen.
Fifth month. On the 13th day, the Empress feasted the Hayahito of Osumi. On the 21st day, she watched the Hayahito perform sumo beneath the west zelkova tree [at Asuka temple].
Sixth month. On the third day, the Empress dispatched upper ministers and court servants to go to the shrines in the capital and four central countries to pray for rain. On the 16th day, gifts were given in various amounts to all the ministers over the age of 80 or sick. On the 18th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 26th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace.
Autumn, seventh month. On the 23rd day, the Empress dispatched messengers to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the 26th day, she gave Jikiko-shi Ono no Ason Keno and Mudai-ni Iki no Muraji Hakatoko, messengers who had been sent to Silla, items in differing amounts.
Eighth month. On the 24th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 30th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace.
Ninth month. On the fourth day, prisoners sentenced with banishment or confinement were released. On the sixth day, Ono no Ason Keno was sent to Silla.
Tenth month. On the 11th day, the Empress went to Uda no Yonabari. On the 12th day, she returned from Yonabari.
12th month. On the fifth day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 13th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace. Jodai-shi Prince Hatsuse was given burial articles.
10th year, spring, first month. On the seventh day, the Empress held a feast for the upper ministers. On the 11th day, the rank of Jikidai-shi was presented to the Prince of Bakeje Namjeon. On the 15th day, firewood was submitted to the Empress. On the 16th day, the Empress feasted the upper ministers and other public officials. On the 18th day, the upper ministers and other public officials performed archery at the south gate.
Second month. On the third day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 13th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace.
Third month. On the third day, the Empress went to Futatsuki Palace. On the 12th day, she gave Inarimushi, an Emishi from Watarishima in Koshi, and Shirasueso, a Mishihase, brocade shirts and pants, dark purple rough silk, and axes.
Summer, fourth month. On the tenth day, the Empress dispatched a messenger to worship the gods Oimi in Hirose and Kaze in Tatsuta. On the 27th day, the rank of Tsuidai-ni was awarded to Mononobe Kursuri from Kazahaya district in the country of Iyo and Mibuno Moroshi from Kawashi district in the country of Higo, along with four bolts of rough silk, 10 ku of thread, 20 hashi of cloth, 20 shovels, 1,000 bales of rice, four rice fields, and exemption on tax and forced labor for their households. It was in reward for the long and difficult time they spent in Tang. On the 28th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace.
Fifth month. On the third day, the Empress ordered that Upper Daikin Hada no Miyatsuko Tsunate receive the clan title Imiki. On the fourth day, the Empress left Yoshino. On the eighth day, the rank of Jikiko-shi was awarded to Owari no Sukune Osumi along with 40 cho of rice fields. On the 13th day, the rank of Jikiko-shi was awarded to Okoma no Muraji Momoe along with burial articles.
Sixth month. On the 18th day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 26th day, she returned from Yoshino Palace.

Death of Prince Takechi


Autumn, seventh month. On the first day, there was a solar eclipse. On the second day, criminals were pardoned. On the eighth day, messengers were dispatched to worship the gods Oimi at Hirose and Kaze at Tatsuta. On the tenth day, Nochi no Miko no Mikoto [Imperial Prince Takechi] died.
Eighth month. On the 25th day, the rank of Jikiko-ichi was given to O no Omi Honji, along with gifts to praise his obediance from the first, acheivements during the Jinshin War. and protection of the gate.
Ninth month. On the 15th day, the rank of Jikidai-ichi was awarded to Wakasakurabe no Ason Iose along with burial articles. This was for his acheivements in the past.
Winter, tenth month. On the 17th day, the Empress awarded the minister of the right Tajihi no Mahito with a palaquin and cane in sympathy for his retirement. On the 22nd day, Shoko-san rank minister of the right Tajihi no Mahito was given 120 men, Senior Court Speaker Shoko-shi Ahe no Ason Minushi and Otomo no Sukune Miyuki were each given 80 men, and Jikiko-ichi Iso no Kami no Ason Maro and Jikiko-ni Fujiwara no Ason Fuhito were each given 50 men.
11th month. On the tenth day, The Emperor gave the monk Bentsu of Daian temple a fief of 40 households.
12th month. The Empress ordered the reading of the Golden Light sutra every twelfth month on the last day of the year, and that 11 people of pure record become monks.

The Empress Abdicates


11th year, spring, first month. On the seventh day, the Empress had a feast for the upper ministers. On the 11th day, rice was given to the widowed, lonely, sick, and those too poor to live on their own. On the 16th day, the Empress had a feast for the upper ministers and other public officials.
Second month. On the 28th day, Jikiko-ichi Tagima no Mahito Kunimi was made custodian of the crown prince. Jikiko-san Michi no Mahito Michimi was made head of the crown prince’s palace, and Jikidaishi Kose no Ason Awamochi was made his assistant.
Third month. On the eighth day, kagirinaki ogami was performed in the crown prince’s palace.
Summer, fourth month. On the fourth day, the Empress gave different ranks, from Jo down to Jiki, on selected individuals. On the seventh day, the Empress went to Yoshino Palace. On the 14th day, she dispatched messengers to worship at Hirose and Tatsuta. That day, she also came back from Yoshino.
Fifth month. On the eighth day, the Empress dispatched the upper ministers and court servants to pray for rain.
Sixth month. On the second day, criminals were pardoned. On the sixth day, the Empress proclaimed that sutras be read in the all the temples of the capital and central countries. On the 16th day, she dispatched those of fifth rank and above to clean the temples of the capital. On the 19th day, offereings were made to the gods. On the 26th day, the upper ministers and other public officials began making Buddhist statues for the Empress. On [day unknown], the upper ministers and court servants were dispatched to make reverance to the gods at shrines and pray for rain.
Autumn, seventh month. On the seventh day at midnight, 109 habitual thieves were pardoned. Also, each was given four tsune of cloth. However, those from outside the central countries received 20 bales of rice instead. On the 12th day, messengers were dispatched to worship at Hirose and Tatsuta. On the 29th day, the upper ministers and other public officials prepared for the opening ceremony for the Buddhist statues installed in Yakushi temple.
Eighth month. On the first day, the Empress made the decision in her home to pass the thone to the crown prince.

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