The first ancestor of the Baekje [kings] was King Onjo. His father was Chumo, also known as Jumong. From Bukbuyeo he escaped peril and arrived in Jolbon Buyeo. The king of Buyeo was without a male child, and only had three daughters. Upon seeing Jumong, they knew he was not an ordinary man, and made his second daughter [Jumong's] wife. Shortly thereafter, the king of Buyeo deid. Jumong succeeded him to the throne and had two children. The oldest was called Biryu, and the next was called Onjo (it is also said that Jumong went to Jolbon and married a woman from Wolgun, and that he had two sons [by her]). Now Jumong, when he was in Bukbuyeo, had one son, who came and became the crown prince. Biryu and Onjo were afraid that they would not be treated well by the one who had become crown prince, and so with Ogan, Mayeo, and some other ten ministers went south with a large number of commoners following them. Then they reached Mt. Hansan and climbed themselves to the summit to look upon the land where they were. Biryu wanted to settle on the beach, and the ten ministers admonished him, saying “But the land to the south of the river: in the north it is bordered by the Han river, and the East occupied by high mountain peaks; the south faces marshland, and the west is guarded by the sea. This benefits of this divinely strategic land posess a fate not easily acquired. Why should you not make your capital in this place? However Biryu did not listen, and divided the people, and he reverted to Michuhol and settled there. Onjo made his capital south of the river in Wiryeseong, and the ten ministers assisted him, and the country was called Sipje. This happened in the third year of Hongjia, during the reign of Emperor Cheng of the Early Han. Biryu was in Michu, where the earth was wet and the rivers salty, and could not dwell in security. Then he returned to look upon Wirye, where the capital and its villages were stable as a three-legged cauldron, and the people dwelt in security. Then he was ashamed and died. His ministers and people all returned to Wirye. Afterwards in the times that came the people were happy and obedient, and the name [of the kingdom] was changed to Baekje. Its lineage and that of Kogyureo are both out of Buyeo, therefore they took the surname Buyeo.
One version says, the first ancestor was King Biryu, and that his father was Utae, an illegitimate grandson of the king of Bukbuyeo Hae Buru. His mother was Soseono, a daughter of Yeon 陁bal, a man of Jolbon. She was married to Utae and gave birth to two sons. The oldest was called Biryu, and the younger called Onjo. Utae died and she was widowed, and settled in Jolbon. After some time Jumong was not well-treated in Buyeo – this was during the second year of Jianzhao in early Han [during the reign of Emperor Yuan]. In spring of the second month, he fled south to Jolbon and established the the capital of Goguryeo. He married Soseono and she became his consort, and because she, in the creation of his realm, rendered great assistance, Jumong especially favored them and received Biryu and the other as if they were his own sons. When Jumong was in Buyeo he had a child Yuryu by a woman of the Ye clan, and when he came he was made crown prince and the one who would succeed him. Therefore Biryu asked his younger brother Onjo, saying “Originally the great king fled the difficulties in Buyeo and escaped here. Our mother's clan poured out the riches of their house to aid in the endeavor [of creating the kingdom], and her toils were many. Now the great king has left this world, and the state has fallen to Yuryu, and if we were to follow along here it would be as depressing as a tumor. Would it not be respectful to our mother's clan if we went to the south and divined the land, and established a separate capital?” Then he and his brother many factions, and crossed the Pae and Dae rivers, and arrived in Michuhol and settled there.
The Pei Shih and Book of Sui both tell that one descendant of Dongmyeong was Gutae who was sincere in his benevolence. When he first established his country in the territory of the former commandery of Daifang, the prefect of the Han territory of Liaodong, Gongsun Du, had his daughter marry [Gutae]. Afterwards [his country] became a powerful state among the Eastern Barbarians.
It is unknown which is true [of these accounts].
First year, spring, fifth month. The court of King Dongmyeong was established.
Second year, spring, first month. The king asked the myriad ministers, saying, “The Mohe assemble on my northern boder, and these people are fierce and have many tricks. We should ready our soldiers, store up grain, and make a plan for our defense. Third month. The king, because the clan leader Euleum possessed both knowledge and bravery, appointed him Marshal Bulwark of the Right [Best's Translation], and entrusted him with matters relating to the soldiers and horses.
Third year, autumn, ninth month. The Mohe invaded the northern border. The king led powerful soldiers to a quick attack and defeated them handily. The rebels who lived to return were only one or two of every ten. Winter, tenth month. There was lightning, and the peaches and plums blossomed.
Fourth year. In the spring and summer, there was drought, famine, and plague. Autumn, eighth month. Envoys were sent to Lelang to cultivate favor.
Fifth year, winter, tenth month. The king took a tour of the northern regions to console them. He went hunting and got a supernal deer [Best].
Sixth year, autumn, seventh month, last day of the month (辛未晦). There was a solar eclipse.
Eighth year, spring, second month. Three thousand of the Mohe came and surrounded Wiryeseong. The king shut the fort and and would not go out. After ten days time the rebels had depleted their stores and returned. The king led a sharp thrust and chased them to the Daebuhyeon, where he fought and overcame them. Over 500 were killed or captured. Autumn, seventh month. The fort of Masuseong was constructed, and a palisade was erected at Mt. Byeongsan. The prefect of Lelang sent a messenger to report: “Recently you inquired about connecting in good favor, with the intention of making us like the same family. But now at the boundary of our territory you have built a fortress and a palisade. Is this some scheme to munch away [our territory] like a silkworm? If there is no change in our former good relations, then destroy the fort and tear down the palisade, and accordingly we will feel no more doubt. However, if you do not approve, then we request a battle to decide winner and loser.
Then the king said, “Doing construction at strategic points and protecting the country has been the usual way of things from the past up to now. How dare you change our peaceful relations because of this. You should not not have any doubts about this matter! If you presume to lead out a force because of this, then accordingly our tiny country will await you.” Therefore peaceful relations with Lelang were lost.
Tenth year, autumn, ninth month. The king went hunting and got a supernal deer, which was sent to Mahan. Winter, tenth month. The Mohe invaded the northern frontier. The king dispatched 200 soldiers and they gave battle on the bank of the Gonmi river. Our army failed, and set in at Mt. Cheongbok to defend themselves. The king himself led 100 elite cavalry and went out to Bonghyeon to help them. The bandits saw this and retreated.
11th year, summer, fourth month. Lelang sent the Mohe to attack the palisade at Mt. Byeongsan. They killed or captured over 100 people. In autumn, seventh month, the twin palisades of Mt. Doksan and Gucheon River were constructed, thereby blocking the road to Lelang.
13th year, spring, second month. In the king's capital and old woman changed into a man, and five tigers came into the fort. The king's mother died. She was 61 years old. Summer, fifth month. The king asked his minsters, saying, “The state in the east is Lelang and to the north are the Mohe, and they attack our borders. Days of peace are few, and now there are incidents of strange omens that are seen again and again. Also, the country's mother has passed, and things will not settle down on their own. It is necessary to move the country. Earlier I went took a look at the the land south of the Han river where the soil is fertile and suitable for our capital. There we can plan to have long-lasting stability.” Autumn, seventh month. At the foot of Mt. Chwihan a palisade was built, and they relocated the households of Wiryeseong. Eighth month. A messenger was dispatched to the Mahan to tell them the capital had been moved, and to fix the borders of the country. In the north it extended to the river, in the south to the Hanung river, in the west to the great sea, and in the east up to Juyang. Ninth month. A fort was built.
14th year, spring, first month. The capital was relocated. Second month. The king made a tour to console settlements, and he encouraged agriculture. Autumn, seventh month. The fortress was built to the northwest of the Han river, and the people of Hanseong were divided [to occupy it].
15th year, spring, first month. The new plaace was built, and it was economical without being crude. They stood in the court to honor the king's mother.
18th year, winter, tenth month. The Mohe executed an ambush, and the king led soldiers against them to fight at the Chiljung river. Their cheiftain, Somo, was captured and sent to Mahan. The rest of the brigands were buried. 11th month. The king wanted to attack Lelang at the fortress of Mt. Udu, and he went to Gugok when there was heavy snow and he had to turn back.
20th year, spring, second month. The king built a great altar and personally offered sacrifices to heaven. Five strange birds flew by.
22nd year, autumn, eighth month. The two fortresses of Seokdu and Gobok were constructed. Ninth month. The king led 1,000 infantry and cavalry to Yeopbu in Liaodong, where he came across Mohe brigands, fought, and defeated them. The captured slaves were divided up as rewards among the officers.
24th year, autumn, seventh month. The king made the palisade of Ungcheon. The king of Mahan sent envoys to reproach him, saying “When the king first crossed the river and had no place set foot, I ceded him 100 ri of land in the northeast in peace. This reception of the king was not ungenerous, and should be thought of and mutually returned. Now in your country your people have completely assembled, and you say that we are not enemies. However, you construct fortresses and moats, and invade our borders. Is this righteousness?” The king was ashamed and destroyed the palisade.
25th year, spring, second month. The waters of the well in the palace overflowed violently. In the house of a man in Hanseong a horse gave birth to a cow with one head and two bodies. A fortune-teller said, “The well water overflowed, and this is an omen of propserity for the great king. The cow with one head and two bodies means the great king should annex the neighboring countries. The king heard this and was pleased. Afterwards he had the intention to swallow up Chin[han] and Ma[han].
26th year, autumn, seventh month. The king said, “Mahan is gradually weakening, and the hearts of the upper and lower classes are moving apart. This condition cannot continue for long. If it becomes annexed to another land, our lips will be lost and our teeth cold [buffer will be removed – see Best 218]. Regret [over not acting] would not make up for it, and so we should act first and take it, and thereby avoid later troubles. Winter, tenth month. The king led men out saying he was going hunting, but then he invaded Mahan. Afterwards, this country and its villages were annexed, and only the two fortresses of Mt. Wonsan and Geumhyeon were resolutely defended and did not fall.
27th year, summer, fourth month. The two fortresses fell. These people were relocated to north of Mt. Hansan. Mahan was overthrown. Autumn, seventh month. The fortress of Mt. Daedu was constructed.
28th year, spring, second month. The king's oldest son, Daru, was made crown prince. He was entrusted with matters relating to soldiers both domestically and abroad. Summer, fourth month. There was a frost and it damaged the barley.
31st year, spring, first month. The households of people in the country were divided into northern and southern groups. Summer, fourth month. It hailed. Fifth month. There was an earthquake. Sixth month. Again there was an earthquake.
33rd year, spring and summer. There was a great drought, and the people starved and ate each other. There were many incidences of robbery. The king pacified and consoled the people. Autumn, eighth month. In addition, the two divisions of east and west established.
34th year, winter, tenth month. An old general from Mahan, Jugeun, took possession of the fort at Ugok and rebelled. The king himself led 5,000 soldiers to attack him. Jugeun hanged himself. His body was cut in half at the waist, and also his wife and children were executed.
36th year, autumn, seventh month. The fortress of Tangjeong was constructed. The people from the fortress at Daedu were divided up and settled it. Eighth month. The two fortresses of Mt. Jeupwon and Geumhyeon were repaired, and the fortress of Gosaburi was constructed.
37th year, spring, third month. There was giant hail the size of chicken eggs, and any birds that happened to be hit died. Summer, fourth month. There was a drought. It lasted until the sixth month when it rained again. The settlements to the northeast of the Han river starved and went wild, and over 1,000 households were lost to Goguryeo. The are between the Pae and Dae rivers was empty and no one lived there.
38th year, spring, second month. The king made a tour and consoled the people, and to the east he went as far as Juyang, and to the north as far as the Pae river. After five ten-day periods he returned. Third month. The king dispatched messengers to encourage farming and sericulture. They also saw to the non-urgent complaints of the people. They were all removed. Winter, tenth month. The king constructed a great altar and made sacrifices to heaven.
40th year, autumn, ninth month. The Mohe came and attacked the fortress of Sulcheon. Winter, eleventh month. They again attacked, this time the fort at Buheyon. They killed and plundered over 100 people. The king ordered 200 elite calvalry to repel them.
41st year, spring, first month. The Marshal Bulwark of the Right, Euleum, died. The king appointed Gaeru of the northern district Marshal Bulwark of the Right. Gaeru was originally from Buyeo, and he was deeply religious and though he was over 70 years old his back was strong and he made no mistakes. Therefore he was chosen. Second month. Men fifteen years old or more from settlements northeast of the Han river were dispatched to repair Wiryeseong.
43rd year, autumn, eight month. The king went hunting for five days in the fields of Mt. Asan. Ninth month. Over 100 wild geese assembled at the king's palace. A fortune-teller said: “Wild geese are a symbol of the people. In the future, people will come from far away to submit to you. Winter, tenth month. From Okjeo in the south twenty families, including that of Gu Pahae, came to Buyang and surrendered themselves. The king accepted and had them settle to the west of Mt. Hansan.
45th year, spring and summer. There was a great drought, and the grass and trees burned and dried out. Winter, tenth month. There was a great earthquake. People's homes collapsed.
46th year, spring, second month. The king died.
King Daru was the oldest son of King Onjo. He was a generous man and had presence and esteem. He became crown prince in the 28th year of Onjo. Onjo died in the 46th year of his reign, and Daru succeeded him.
Second year, spring, first month. The king paid respects at the shrine to his original ancestor, Dongmyeong. Second month. The king made sacrifices to heaven at the southern altar.
Third year, winter, tenth month. Heulu from the eastern district and the Mohe fought to the west of Mt. Masu. He overcame them, killing and capturing to a great number of them to the king's pleasure. He was awarded with ten horses from Mt. Masu and 500 seok of tax grain.
Fourth year, autumn, eighth month. Gonu, of the fortress of Gobon, fought with the Mohe and throughly defeated them. He beheaded over 200. Ninth month. The king went hunting at the summit of Mt. Hoeng and killed two dear in succession, and the people admired and praised him.
Sixth year, spring, first month. The king's oldest son Giru was made crown prince. There was a great amnesty. Second month. The king ordered that the southern counties of the country begin to cultivate grain.
Seventh year, spring, second month. The Marshal Bulwark of the Right, Gaeru, died. He was 90 years old. Heulu from the eastern district became Marshal Bulwark of the Right. Summer, fourth month. There was a red mist in the east. Autumn, ninth month. The Mohe attacked and sacked the fort at Masu. The bruned the houses of the common people down. Winter, tenth month. They again attacked, this time the palisade at Mt. Byeong.
Tenth year, winter, tenth month. The Marshal Bulwark of the Right, Heulu, became Marshal Bulwark of the Left. Jinhoe of the northern district became Marshal Bulwark of the Right. 11th month. There was an earthquake that sounded like thunder.
11th year, autumn. The grains did not mature. Private brewing of alcohol was prohibited. Winter, tenth month. The king made a tour to console the two districts of the east and west. The poor people could not support themselves, and they were provided with 200 seok of tax grain.
21st year, spring, second month. A great locust tree in the palace grounds rotted on its own. Third month. The Marshal Bulwark of the Left, Heulu, died. The king wept and mourned him.
28th year, spring and summer. There was a drought. The king was worried and released prisoners, even those who had committed capital offenses. Autumn, eight month. The Mohe assaulted the northern borders.
29th year, spring, second month. The king ordered the [people of] the eastern distrcit to construct the fortress of Ugok. This was a preparation against the Mohe.
36th year, winter, tenth month. The king expanded his domain to the fortress of Nangjagok. Then he sent messengers to Silla to ask to meet them, but they did not come.
37th year. The king dispatched soldiers to attack the fort of Wasan in Silla, but they could not take it. Then he moved the soldiers to attack the fort of Guyang. Sillla dispatched 2,000 soldiers and cavalry who fought back and repelled [the invaders].
39th year. We attacked and took the fortress of Wasan. 200 men were stationed there to defend it, but Silla defeated them [later].
43rd year. Soldiers were dispatched to attack Silla.
46th year, summer, fifth month, last day of the month (戊午晦). There was a solar eclipse.
47th year, autumn, eighth month.The generals were sent to invade Silla.
48th year, winter, tenth month. We again attack the fortress of Wasan and sacked it.
49th year, autumn, ninth month. The fortress of Wasan was taken back by Silla.
50th year, autumn, ninth month. The king died.
King Giru was the oldest son of King Daru. His knowledge was vast and he did not stay his intentions with minor details. In the sixth year of King Daru, he was made crown prince. In the fiftieth year of his reign, King Daru died, and [Giru] succeeded.
Ninth year, spring, first month. Soldiers were dispatched to attack the borders of Silla. Summer, ninth month, 乙巳. A new star was seen in the [the Purple Forbidden Enclosure – Best 225].
11th year, autumn, eight month, last day of the month (乙未晦). There was a solar eclipse.
13th year, summer, sixth month. There was an earthquake that broke and sank the houses of the people. Many died.
14th year, spring, third month. There was a great drought, and no barley. Summer, sixth month. There was a strong wind that uprooted trees.
16th year, summer, sixth month, first day of the month (戊戌朔). There was a solar eclipse.
17th year, autumn, eighth month. Five boulders all fell down at the same time from the peak of Mt. Hoeng.
21st year, summer, fourth month. Two dragons were seen at the Han river.
23rd year, autumn, eighth month. There was a frost that killed the beans. Winter, tenth month. There was rain and hail.
27th year. The king went hunting at Mt. Han. He killed a supernal deer.
29th year. Messengers were dispatched to Silla to sue for peace.
31st year, winter. There was no rain.
32nd year, spring and summer. There was a drought. The people ate each other. Autumn, seventh month. The Mohe went into Ugok, plundered, then stealing the people away returned.
35th year, spring, third month. There was an earthquake. Winter, tenth month. There was another tremor.
37th year. Messengers were dispatched to make inquiries of Silla.
40th year, summer, fourth month. Cranes nested above the gate of the capital. Sixth month. There was a lot of rain for ten days. The Han river overflowed and destroyed the houses of the people. Autumn, seventh month. The king ordered the authorities to see to the fields that were damaged by water.
49th year. Silla was invaded by the Mohe. They sent a written request for soldiers. The king dispatched five generals with their armies to rescue them.
52nd year, winter, 11th month. The king died.
King Gaeru was the son of King Giru. His character was respectful and also orderly in his conduct. In the52nd year of his reign Giru died, and Gaeru succeeded him.
Fourth year, summer, foruth month. The king went hunting at Mt. Han.
Fifth year, spring, second month. The fortress of Mt. Bukhan was constructed.
Tenth year, autumn, eighth month, 庚子. Mars moved into the Southern Dipper.
18th year, spring, first month, last day of the month (丙申晦). There was a solar eclipse. Winter, tenth month. Ajan Gilseon of Silla made a treasonous plot but it was discovered and he came to our country. The king of Silla sent a written request for him but he was not sent back. The king of Silla was furious and led soldiers out and came to attack. All the fortresses were fortified and defended themselves, and he could not get in. The Sillan soldiers used all their stores and returned.
Commentary [Best 230]:
During the Spring and Autumn Period, when Pu of Chu fled to Lu, Ji Wenzi said, “Seeing one who conducts himself properly toward his lord is like seeing a child who is filial to its father and mother. Upon seeing one who is not proper to his lord, he should be killed like a hawk on a sparrow. Seeing Pu of Chu, [he said that] he has no measure of virtue and had murderous ethics, and this passed. Now Gilseon was also a wicked and rebellious man, and the king of Baekje took him in and hid him. Thus we can say that concealing a villian makes one a harborer. Therefore, the peace was lost with neighboring countries, and the king made his people suffer under the burden of attack. This lacked insight.
King Chogo (also known as King Sogo) was the son of King Gaeru. In the 39th year of Gaeru's reign, he died and Chogo succeeded to the throne.
Second year, Autumn, Seventh month. Troops secretly attacked two castles in Silla's western district. He captured 1,000 men and women and then returned. Eighth month. The King of Silla dispatched Ilgilcan (check romanization for last character) Heungseon at the head of 20,000 troops to come and invaded several castles in the east of the country. The Sillan King also personally led 8,000 spirited cavalrymen and accompanied [Heungseon]. They went as far as the Han river when the King [of Baekje] determined the Sillan host was impossible to repel and returned that which had been plundered earlier.
Fifth year, spring, third month. On the last day of the month [丙寅晦], there was a solar eclipse. Winter, tenth month. Troops were dispatched to invade the border with Silla.
21st year, winter, tenth month. There were no clouds but there was lightning. A comet [see Best, tailless] was seen in the nothwest. It disappeared after 20 days.
22nd year, spring, fifth month. The wells of the King's capital and the Han river were all dry.
23rd year, spring, second month. Weighty repairs were made to the palace. Troops were dispatched to attack the castle of Mosan in Silla.
24th year, spring, fourth month. On the first day of the month, there was a solar eclipse. Autumn, seventh month. Our troops fought with Silla Guyang. They were defeated and more than 500 died.
25th year, spring, eighth month. Soldiers were dispatched to attack the district of Wonsan in the west of Silla. They advanced and surrounded the castle of Bugok. General Gudo of Silla then led 500 mounted troops to repel them, so our forces feigned a retreat. Gudo pursued them to Wasan where our troops turned and gave battle and had a great victory.
26th year, autumn, ninth month. Chiugi [Best - a type of comet] was seen in the [Best - horn and gullet constellations].
34th year, autumn, seventh month. There was an earthquake. Troops were dispatched to attack the Sillan border.
39th year, autumn, seventh month. Troops were dispatched to attack the castle of Yocha in Silla and they uprooted the position. They killed the lord of this castle, Seolbu. The King of Silla, Naehae, was furious and ordered Ibeolcan [check romanization] Rieum to become general and lead six squadrons of spirited troops to come and attack our castle of Saheyon. Winter, tenth month. A comet was seen in the Eastern well.
40th year, autumn, seventh month. Venus intersected with the moon.
43rd year, autumn. Because of locusts and drought the crops did not mature. There were many incidents of thievery but the king consoled them.
44th year, winter, tenth month. There was a typhoon that uprooted trees.
45th year, spring, second month. The two castles of Jeokhyeon and Sado were built, and residents from the east were moved there. Winter, tenth month. The Mohe came and attacked the fortress of Sado but were unable to take it. They burned down the castle gate and then escaped.
46th year, autumn, eighth month. In the south of the country locusts damaged the crops and the people starved. Winter, 11th month. There was no ice.
47th year, summer, sixth month. On the last day of the month[庚寅晦], there was a solar eclipse.
48th year, autumn, seventh month. In the western district a man named Hoehoe caught a white deer and presented it to the King. The King deemed it a felicitous omen and gave him 100 stones of grain.
49th year, autumn, ninth month. The King ordered Jin Gwa of the northern district to lead 1,000 soldiers to attack and take the Mohe castle of Seokmun. Winter, tenth month. A powerful cavalry of Mohe came and attacked, coming as far as the Sul river. The King died.